I

I --Chinese sacrificial bronze vessel, two- handled with flaring rim, used to hold votive food. Occasionally rectangular, with a cover. This is one generic word covering all Chinese ritual bronze vessels having the same characteristics.

Iambic --In poetry, a foot (q.v.); a short syllable followed by a long. It is considered to approximate more closely than any other poetic form the rhythm and character of ordinary speech, esp. English.

Iambic meter --In religious music, a type of hymn having meter corresponding approximately to two-in-a-bar or four-in-a- bar musical rhythm, each line beginning with an unaccented syllable.

Icbacarre --An ancient, stringed musical instrument of Africa resembling a crude lute. One in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, is made of a circular shell, the opening of which is parchment- covered. It has a wooden neck with one peg and a fiber string. This example of the icbacarre came from Mozambique.

Ice snow paper --A ground in Chinese calligraphy and painting. See ping hsüeh.

Ichi-gen-kin --A plucked-string musical instrument of Japan, known also as sourna-koto. The body is a flat piece of wood, having in some instances a convex upper surface, and it stands on four slender legs. A single silk string is stretched from a peg at one end of the body to the opposite end, elevated by a movable bridge before passing to the interior through an eyelet. It is plucked with a cylindrical tsume made of ivory. A specimen in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, is forty inches long and six inches wide. Much legend is attached to the ichi-gen- kin.

Ichi-mai --A single-sheet Japanese wood- block print in black and white.

Ichi-no-tsuzumi --Three sizes of small, dumbbell-shaped drum used by Japanese musicians in place of the larger drums when the members of the orchestra are standing. Known also as ni-no-tsuzumi and san-no-tsuzumi.

Ichnolite --A fossil footprint, or the entire stone containing it.

Icon --The representation of some sacred personage, as Christ, or an angel or saint, in paint, enamel, fresco, or other material, the object being revered as sacred because of the holy resemblance it bears. Many religious disputes throughout the centuries were centered about the icon and its purpose, giving rise to iconoclasm (rejection of the use of images in religion) and the iconophiles (friends of images). Some of the greatest works of art in all of art's history have been accomplished as icons. See also Caroline Books.

Iconoclasm --Literally, icon smasher. The belief by many that the use of images in religion should be abolished, as distinguished from the iconophiles, or friends of images. See icon.

Iconography --The art of representation by pictures or images; the study or description of portraiture or representation. The identification of religious characters, incidents, and symbols in the arts. See icon.

Iconophiles --The group that grew in opposition to the iconoclasts (q.v.), and expressed its approbation of the use of images in religion. See icon.

-343-

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Dictionary of the Arts
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Introduction v
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • A 1
  • B 62
  • C 119
  • D 203
  • E 236
  • F 260
  • G 290
  • H 318
  • I 343
  • J 359
  • K 368
  • L 385
  • M 411
  • N 455
  • O 471
  • P 490
  • Q 562
  • R 567
  • S 605
  • T 692
  • U 744
  • V 751
  • W 767
  • X 782
  • Y 785
  • Z 792
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