J

Jacara --A term in music; see xacara.

Jacaranda --See rosewood.

Jacinth --See jacinto.

Jacinto --In lapidary art, (1) the hyacinth, or transparent red variety of zircon; (2) the cinnamon stone, a form of garnet; (3) any dark red quartz used as a gem. Also known as jacinth.

Jacket --In book art, the wrapper or outer cover of a book as it comes from the publisher; usually printed and decorated. The term is also applied to a transparent wrapper showing through to the cover design itself. Known also as dust cover.

Jack of Diamonds --A Russian art group formed by the followers of Cézanne four years after his death. At this time ( 1910), when the artists of Paris came under the influence of primitive and exotic arts, certain Russian artists went back to their own past for new sources of inspiration. Related to the fauves and expressionists (qq.v.), they were interested in forms and colors that did not imitate nature. Among the best was Marc Chagall, whose motifs from Jewish folklore created a fantastic dream world of lyric beauty in which cubist elements were mated successfully with primitive color and expressionist mood.

Jack rafter --In architecture, a short rafter which joins the eaves of a roof to a hip or valley.

Jacobean --A period or style of early English Renaissance architecture lasting throughout the reign of James I, after whom (Latin, JACOBUS) it was named. It was essentially a Baroque (q.v.) style, replete with bizarre effects and heavy forms. Typified also by its contributions to the development of furniture, it conceived the ponderous refectory table with its bulbous legs. The period ( 1603-1625) is often termed by interior designers the Age of Oak, although some walnut was used. Lines were generally straight, pro portions were strong and sturdy, and upholstery fabrics emphasized needlepoint, velvet, leather, and brocades. Some historians extend the period to 1688, bringing it to the start of the Williamand Mary period.

Jacob's Stone --The famous stone used in the coronations of British kings, supposedly the stone against which Jacob leaned his head in sleep while dreaming of the ladder to heaven. One of the Milesian kings brought it from Ireland to Scotland after its earlier removal from Asia, and it was taken to England by Edward I.

Jacobus --In numismatics, the unofficial name of an English gold coin struck during the reign of James I. Originally valued at 20 shillings, it was later stabilized at 24.

Jacquard --In weaving, an attachment to a loom (or the loom itself) consisting chiefly of a device for forming sheds or openings for the passage of the shuttle between the warp threads. Invented about 1800 by Joseph Marie Jacquard of Lyons, it immediately replaced the heddle mechanism previously employed. Its introduction marked an epoch in the manufacture of figured woven fabrics. It consists essentially of a series of perforated cards, the punches in which control color and de-

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Dictionary of the Arts
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Introduction v
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • A 1
  • B 62
  • C 119
  • D 203
  • E 236
  • F 260
  • G 290
  • H 318
  • I 343
  • J 359
  • K 368
  • L 385
  • M 411
  • N 455
  • O 471
  • P 490
  • Q 562
  • R 567
  • S 605
  • T 692
  • U 744
  • V 751
  • W 767
  • X 782
  • Y 785
  • Z 792
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