Y

Yabyom --The principle in Tibetan art dictating that no single object or element is complete within itself, and that each requires presentation or union with its opposite in order to be considered a complete unit or entity. Thus, most of the works of art of Tibet, esp. in painting and sculpture, represent at the same time male and female figures, light and darkness, good and evil, etc. This belief is somewhat tangential to the Western theory of duality, asserting that all things are understandable only in terms of their opposites; e.g., light could not be defined if darkness did not exist; cold would have no meaning if heat did not exist, etc.

Ya chang --In Chinese art, a tablet of jade, usually in the form of a knife; presented to dignitaries as a symbol of rank.

Yachting Style --In France, the name applied to the Art Nouveau style, popular between 1890 and 1905. See Art Nouveau.

Ya-gwin --A cymbal-like musical instrument of Burma, often highly ornate.

Yahgan --A tribe of So. American Indians apparently making up its own linguistic group. Though considered extremely low in the scale of comparative Indian cultures, the Yahgans are excellent weavers, decorators, and boat builders, and are one of the rare peoples able to weave water-tight baskets. The race is almost extinct; known also as Yapoo.

Yajnoparita --A Sanskrit term describing the ornamental thread worn over the left shoulder and breast of a Hindu, designating the wearer as a 'twice-born' man.

Yaki --In the ceramics of Japan, a general term applied to any type of ware having a foundation of clay; loosely synonymous with ware, as in Temmoku yaki (Temmoku ware), etc.

Ya-koto --A musical instrument of Japan; a development of the yamato-koto (q.v.) having eight strings.

Yaksha --In the art and mythology of India, the divine guard of all treasures below the earth's surface. Frequently represented in painting and sculpture as a stalwart, armed defender.

Yaksi --The sculpture of India from 200 to 25 B.C., revealing a direct sense of the full beauty of the human form, conceived not as an articulate biological organism, but as the totality of many individually beautiful and mechanistically joined parts. For the architecture of the period, see caitya halls.

Yakumo-koto --A Japanese musical instrument of the plucked-string variety. The body is made of bamboo and is equipped with two strings. Almost identical with the ni-gen-kin (q.v.).

Yama --In Hindu art and mythology, the ruler of the world below, who judged the spirits of the dead. Represented in painting as a human figure standing at a fork in a road, the spirits of the good walking toward him on a flower-decked road, and the evil spirits fighting their way past beasts, thorns, etc., on the other branch. The Yama is believed to be a deification of the first mortal on earth to die.

Yamato --(Literally, pictures of old Japan) A school of painting in native style, reaching its peak in the 12th century, centered largely in the vicinity of Kyoto. Rustic and

-785-

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Dictionary of the Arts
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Introduction v
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • A 1
  • B 62
  • C 119
  • D 203
  • E 236
  • F 260
  • G 290
  • H 318
  • I 343
  • J 359
  • K 368
  • L 385
  • M 411
  • N 455
  • O 471
  • P 490
  • Q 562
  • R 567
  • S 605
  • T 692
  • U 744
  • V 751
  • W 767
  • X 782
  • Y 785
  • Z 792
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