Z

Zaccab --A type of white earth mixed with lime; used by the natives of Yucatan for plaster, stucco, and the like, in both architecture and sculpture.

Zaffer blue --In painting, same as cobalt blue (q.v.).

Zaffre --A term in painting; see smalt.

Zaffre --In the making of stained glass (q.v.), a prized ingredient imparting a clear, deep blue, made from an oxide of cobalt.

Zafiro --General term in Spanish art applied to (1) ultramarine; (2) sapphire; (3) lapis lazuli.

Zahradnicek --A Bohemian folk-dance in the general character of the waltz, performed by one man between two women, arms locked. Known also as gardener dance.

Zakopane --An art center situated on the northern slopes of the Tatra Mountains of Poland, famous for its superb wood carvings. Many of Europe's greatest sculptors drew inspiration from this cultural point.

Zambomba --A rustic musical instrument of Spain made by stretching a head of skin or parchment over the mouth of an ordinary jar and inserting a stick through it. It is played by rubbing the stick with the finger, causing the air within the jar to vibrate in sympathy.

Zamr --Turkish name for the zourna (q.v.), a wind instrument having a conical tube fitted with a double-beating reed; the zourna is an instrument of old Persia. See also flayera.

Zanbra --A Spanish festival featuring music and dancing.

Zaner --A musical instrument of Egypt consisting of an unusually long tube fitted with a double reed mouthpiece; produces tones of deep pitch.

Zanni --See zany.

Zany --In Italian drama and mime, the servant-clown of the commedia dell' arte. Loosely, any jester or clown; specifically, a clown's comic assistant; the butt of a comedian's jokes; what the 20th century calls a stooge. See also Sannio and Pulcinella. (Italian zanni, buffoon.)

Zanze --A musical instrument of Africa consisting of a rectangular box or a gourd which has a sound hole forming the resonator. Strips of iron or hard wood are attached to the body in loose fashion, and these are plucked with the thumb. It is possible to produce a melody from the zanze. The variety local to the West Coast of Africa is known as kisanji.

Zapateado --A Spanish solo dance of great vivacity in which the rhythm is marked throughout by the stamping of the dancer's feet in triple time.

Zapotec --A linguistic group of Oaxaca Valley, Mexico. They devised a ceremonial civilization which had a pantheon, a calendar system, and a method of writing. Their art was highly stylized, yet seems to have been influenced by Maya and Olmec, later largely supplanted by Mixtec. Overthrown by the Aztecs in the late 15th century, their culture is attested by the ruins of their palace at Mitla, one of the most exquisite monuments in the Western Hemisphere. They are now quite numerous in East Oaxaca, where they speak a cultivated and highly polysynthetic stock language. A joint archaeological expedi-

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Dictionary of the Arts
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Introduction v
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • A 1
  • B 62
  • C 119
  • D 203
  • E 236
  • F 260
  • G 290
  • H 318
  • I 343
  • J 359
  • K 368
  • L 385
  • M 411
  • N 455
  • O 471
  • P 490
  • Q 562
  • R 567
  • S 605
  • T 692
  • U 744
  • V 751
  • W 767
  • X 782
  • Y 785
  • Z 792
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