# Lesson Study: A Japanese Approach to Improving Mathematics Teaching and Learning

By Clea Fernandez; Makoto Yoshida | Go to book overview

Appendix B
Methods Students Can
Use to Subtract 7 from 12

“Counting-subtraction” methods (kazoehiki): Counting off 7 one by one starting either with a group of 12 or a group of 2 and 10 (from which the 7 are counted off).

“Supplement-addition” method (hokaho): Count up from 8 while keeping track of the numbers counted.

“Subtraction-addition” method (genkaho): 12 - 7 = (10 + 2) - 7 = (10 - 7) + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5

“Subtraction-subtraction” method (gengenho): 12 - 7 = (10 + 2) - (5 + 2) = (10— 5)+ (2–2) = 5

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