Conclusions for Management
The Expert Role Approach
To conclude, we discuss the role of experts in managerial decision making. Managers are confronted with experts in several forms, mainly consultants and specialists as members of their staff. The aim of these conclusions is not to recommend additional advising experts. This would mean overloading managerial decision making. For the case when management involves experts' advice—such as any kind of consultancy—this chapter shows how to use The Social Psychology of Expertise
to use experts and expertise more efficiently. The essence of this chapter 8 is the introduction of an expert role approach that shall support robust action in management. Chapter 8 commences with some fundamentals of management theory and then introduces the expert role approach. This chapter—and the book—ends with some remarks as to this question: When do we need experts for planning?
8.1 PARADOXES OF MANAGEMENT THEORY
Makridakis (1990), a doyen in the field of management theory, described the paradoxes of using management theories:
|1. ||A manager must use a management theory to guide his/her thinking and facilitate or improve his/her decision-making, yet past experience indicates that the great majority of theories in management are short-lived and of doubtful value […]|
|2. ||A manager needs a predictive theory, yet in management few, if any, theories are predictive.|