Instructions for the yes-no design:
To find d' and c. Look up H in either the p or the p' column and find the corresponding value in the z column; if H is less than .50 (i.e., if it came from the p' column), take the negative of this value. Do the same for F, Then d′ is the difference between these values, and c is −0.5 times the sum.
To find β (likelihood ratio). The likelihood ratio β is the ratio of the entries for H and F in the φ column. Alternatively, find the z scores corresponding to H and F as above. Then ln(β) is −0.5 times the difference between the squares of these values.