Islamic Leviathan: Islam and the Making of State Power

By Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr | Go to book overview

6
Pakistan, 1977–1997
Islamization and Restoration of State Power

In July 1977 the Pakistan military, under the command of General Muhammad Zia ul-Haq, staged a coup. Months of agitations against the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto had eroded authority at the center in Pakistan and mobilized antiregime forces—and especially Islamists—to an unprecedented degree. It was therefore not altogether unexpected that regime change in 1977 led to inclusion of Islamic values and laws into policy making. The state initiated a broad-based Islamization scheme that had a profound impact on Pakistan's society and politics. Here, too, Islamization was very much a project of the state. It was designed to stave off the Islamist challenge to state authority, but also to strengthen state institutions and expand their reach into society.

There were, however, important differences between Malaysia and Pakistan that account for variations in the two countries' experiences with Islamization. To begin with, Pakistan faced a far graver crisis at the time of the 1977 coup than did Malaysia when Mahathir came to power. Pakistan did not have strong political parties and hence relied on the military. Finally, in Malaysia UMNO and state leaders were concerned with state authority, but in tandem with economic growth and development. In Pakistan restoration of state authority was the paramount concern.

At another level, in Pakistan Islamism had all along been both more powerful and more radical, and became even more so through the crucible of the 1977 agitation. In Pakistan in 1977 there was no moderate Islamist force like ABIM. Whereas in Malaysia at the time the most significant Islamist force

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Islamic Leviathan: Islam and the Making of State Power
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • Islamic Leviathan *
  • Introduction - Defining the Problem 3
  • I - The Making of the New States *
  • 1 - The Colonial Legacy 31
  • 2 - From Independence to 1969 48
  • II - Political Turmoil and Cultural Change *
  • 3 - Secular States in Crisis 69
  • 4 - The Islamist Challenge in Malaysia and Pakistan 82
  • III - Heart of the Matter *
  • 5 - Islamization and Capitalist Development 105
  • 6 - Islamization and Restoration of State Power 130
  • Conclusion - The Islamization Period in the Balance 158
  • Notes 169
  • Bibliography 207
  • Index 227
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