Chapter 3
QUIA IN NULLO PECCABANT:
INSPECTION AND APPROVAL OF THE
HUMILIATI 1199–1201

Today the Humiliati have been received by the Church because they sinned in nothing, except in that they condemned oath—takers.

Tancred.1

This gloss on the text of Ad abolendam in the Compilatio prima sums up the position of the Humiliati at the end of the process of ratification to which they submitted themselves in the first years of the pontificate of Innocent III. It was produced by the canonist Tancred of Bologna (c. 1185–c. 1236), early in the second decade of the thirteenth century (c. 1210–15) and reflects the view of a man well acquainted with Innocent's actions and decisions. He was also responsible for the 'ordinary' gloss on the Compilatio tertia, the collection of Innocent's early decretals prepared by Petrus Beneventanus in 1209–10 which, under the title on the restitution of spoils, included Olim causam, Innocent's Decretal referring to the Humiliati in Tortona.2 The same assessment of the Humiliati as once condemned but now accepted is also found in an early (c. 1210) and rather cryptic gloss on Compilatio tertia by Tancred's teacher in Bologna, John of Wales (fl. 1210–15).3 John, however, makes no reference to oath—taking, so this element may have originated with Tancred. It is again found in the slightly later work of another Bolognese canonist, Johannes Teutonicus (c. 1170–1245), who wrote his own gloss on the same Decretal in Compilatio tertia

____________________
1
Gloss on 1 Comp. 5.6.n (=x.5.7.9) s.v. 'Humiliati', Admont, Stiftsbibliothek Ms. 22, fo. 72va: 'hodiehumiliati ab ecclesia sunt recepti. quia in nullo peccabant. nisi quia iurantes comdempnabant. tancredus'; identical in second recension, Vat lat. 1377 fo. 84vb.
2
Olim causam, 3 Comp. 2.6.2 (x.2.13.12), Appendix 1, 6; see also Brundage, Medieval Canon Law, pp. 227–8.
3
John of Wales, Gloss on 3 Comp. 2.6.2 (= x.2.i3.i2) s.v. 'Humiliati' (first layer of glosses), Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. Clm 3879, fo. 187va: 'Humiliati: ar [gumentum] istarum sectam non reprobari, vel supple olim'.

-64-

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