Conservation Medicine: Ecological Health in Practice

By A. Alonso Aguirre; Richard S. Ostfeld et al. | Go to book overview

4
Biodiversity, Climate Change, and
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Paul R. Epstein
There are multiple biological symptoms of global change, including amphibian declines on six continents, a decline in pollinators, the proliferation of harmful algal blooms along coastlines worldwide, and emerging infectious diseases across a wide taxonomic spectrum. There are also multiple social, ecological, and global factors underlying these symptoms (Levins et al. 1994; Morse 1996). There are multiple plausible mechanisms and pathways by which these social and environmental factors are altering biodiversity and influencing the emergence of infectious diseases. In general, declining biodiversity and the effects of climate change on habitat and biodiversity can decouple important biological control systems limiting emergence and spread of pests and pathogens (Walker 1994). The pathways and mechanisms include the following:
1. Monocultures and habitat simplification increase the potential for disease spread among agricultural crops and forest plants.
2. Habitat loss and human penetration into disrupted wilderness areas can bring humans in contact with previously “isolated” pathogens.
3. Declines in predators can release prey from natural biological controls, and small prey can become pests and carriers of pathogens.
4. Loss of competitors (which carry pathogens less efficiently than primary animal hosts) can remove these buffers against pathogen abundance and spread.
5. Dominance of generalists over specialists, especially among avian populations, may increase pathogen levels (in the more tolerant generalists) and increase their spread.

-27-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Conservation Medicine: Ecological Health in Practice
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 407

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.