JANE W. DAVIDSON & JORGE SALGADO CORREIA
Body movement plays a role in the construction, execution, and perception of musical performances. We explore the interface between technical matters of physical control and the expressive components of physical gestures and discuss the bodily origins of musical meaning, expressive performance, and musical skill acquisition. For example, bodily gesture and rhythm in protomusical mother-child exchanges influence the development of thought and knowledge, and expressive slowing in music (ritardando) corresponds to the deceleration of runners coming to a halt. Specific movement gestures in music performance function as illustrative and emblematic cues and clearly indicate the focus of the performer's attention, whether on the narrative content of a song or on showing off to the audience. Thus, through body movement thoughts and concerns are communicated to the audience. Performers, educators, and students can use this knowledge to enhance their performing, teaching, and learning capacities.
All musicians use their bodies to interact with their musical instruments when performing music. The intention of this chapter is to show that the body is not only essential to the physical manipulation of the instrument for the accurate execution of music, but it is also vital in the generation of expressive ideas about the music. In addition, the body seems to be critical in the production and perception of information about the performer's concerns to coordinate with coperformers and audience and to engage in extramusical concerns on stage, for instance, preening display movements.
To begin the exploration of musical performance and the body, it is important to recall that parents rhythmically pat, bounce, and caress their babies and melodically vocalize softly to them in motherese (infant-directed speech). In essence, the movements and sounds are based on exchanges that utilize varying elements associated with expressive musical performance. The motherese de-