The Soviet postwar occupation of Lithuania was far different from the prewar occupation.1 First, and perhaps foremost, the Soviets' primary tool in the latter period was out-and-out brutality. There was little of the “hearts and minds” propaganda campaign that accompanied threat and deportation in the earlier period. No doubt four years of savage fighting against the Germans, and the millions of dead produced by it, contributed to the formation and execution of savage pacification policies, especially when these policies were to be applied to a population considered guilty of collaboration.
The Soviet effort in Lithuania, led by General Kruglov, combined the resources of the NKVD, SMERSH (military counterintelligence), and the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The overall strategy included five fundamental____________________