This book is the culmination of a long intellectual journey. The journey began at the Institute for Jazz Studies (IJS) at Rutgers University in Newark. Its supportive atmosphere allowed me to roam freely among its archives. I was able to follow every clue and personal intuition to gain the fullest understanding of the history of jazz as possible. In my early excursions into jazz history, I also had the opportunity to talk with Dan Morgenstern, the director of IJS. As someone who was an active participant during the modern jazz renaissance, his insights on the jazz art world were tremendously helpful. IJS also supported me through the Morroe Berger – Benny Carter Jazz Research Fund established by the great alto saxophonist, bandleader, arranger, educator, and union activist, Benny Carter. Five years after my time at IJS, I had an opportunity to advance my research and analysis a final crucial step forward with my appointment as an Annenberg Scholar at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania. At Annenberg I was able to search backwards into the early twentieth and late nineteenth centuries to understand more clearly the broader significance of the rise of a jazz art world. And the intellectual exchange among the most talkative group of scholars I have had the pleasure to spend time with was also truly inspirational. My book in no small way attests to the immeasurable value of IJS as a repository of jazz history and the valuable contribution of the Annenberg Scholars Program to the interdisciplinary exchange of ideas.
A number of individuals also helped this project with their insightful commentary and advice. Our conversations and correspondences were invaluable. Since the beginning of my project, Ron Lembo and Bob Dunn have provided critical advice as well as strong support for the intellectual path I had chosen. A special thanks as well goes to Reebee Garofalo, Howard Becker, Jim Ennis, Margaret Cerulo, Paula Aymer, and Andrew Hrycyna for their comments on my work. And I give a warm thank you to the Great Barrington Group for their perceptive conversations about cultural sociology and breaking disciplinary boundaries. I also appreciate the guidance provided by Ann Swidler and Todd