"It is ironic that a region for so long characterized by a single stereotype is actually almost too diverse to generalize about at all," wrote David Whisnant, referring to the mainstream perception of Appalachia as a region of poor, backward people (1994: p. xix). This study has provided ample support for that assertion. The foregoing analyses have dealt with two very different communities in divergent environments within the Appalachian region. The Monacan Nation is a group of people indigenous to this continent who relate to one another as a single People with a shared sacred history and a relationship to their homeland that predates the European presence on this continent. The residents of Wyoming County are not indigenous to the continent. Although they may interact with each other within the parameters of a common cultural system peculiar to time and space, they cannot admit to the sociocultural solidarity of Peoplehood in the sense that Barth (1969) and Spicer (1971; 1980) used the term to distinguish ethnic nations. Moreover, although both communities inhabit the mountainous reaches of Appalachia, their respective physical environments are considerably different, and these differences have significantly influenced the manner in which external political, economic, and social forces have influenced and interacted with them.