This essay was written at the invitation of Michael Heyd and Shaul Katz, and was begun during the tenure of an Edelstein International Fellowship at the Hebrew University. I am grateful to them and to the Edelstein Foundation: I wish also to express my thanks to the staff of the Central Zionist Archives, Jerusalem, and to Leanne Piggott, of the University of Sydney, for their assistance in securing sources in preparation of this article.
In recent years, there have been several biographies and interpretative essays. See Kenneth Young, Arthur James Balfour: The Happy Life of the Politician, PM, Statesman and Philosopher 1848–1930 (London: 1963); A. M. Gollin, Balfour's Burden: Arthur Balfour and Imperial Preference (London: 1965); Richard A. Rempel, Unionists Divided: Arthur Balfour, Joseph Chamberlain and the Unionist Free Traders (Hamden, Conn: 1972); and, concerning his years as chief secretary for Ireland, L. P. Curtis, Jr., Coercion and Conciliation in Ireland, 1880–1892 (Princeton: 1963). For more recent work, see Sydney H. Zebel, Balfour: A Political Biography (Cambridge: 1973); John Ramsden, The Age of Balfour and Baldwin (London: 1978); Max Egremont, Balfour (London 1980); Peter Fraser, “Arthur James Balfour, ” in British Prime Ministers in the Twentieth Century, ed. John P. Macintosh (London: 1977); and Ruddock F. Mackay, Balfour: Intellectual Statesman (Oxford: 1985). See also Balfour's extensive writings, as well as his Essays and Addresses (Edinburgh: 1893) and Chapters of Autobiography (London: 1930).