averaged about 4000 in number. When the legions were in winter quarters, the cavalry contingents were scattered to their homes. There were, however, a few enlisted men in this arm of the service who remained constantly under the standards. They were Gauls, Germans, and Spaniards. (Fig. 9.)
B. G. V, 463; VII, 131; V, 262; VII, 551.
The organization of the auxiliary cavalry contingents was after the manner of their nation ; modified more or less, doubtless, by Roman customs. Contingents of from 200 to 400 men were commanded by praefecti equitum. A larger body was always under a Roman commander.
B. G. IV, II4. B. G. I, 525.
Of course the enlisted cavalry was organized entirely in the Roman way. A tactical unit was the ala, or regiment, 300 to 400 strong, commanded by a praefectus equitum. The ala was divided into turmae, squadrons, of perhaps 33 men each, including the commander, the decurio. The turma was divided into three decuriae of II men each.
A. 29, 78. B. G. VI, 84. A. 29. G. p. 229.
§ 19. For battles in the open field the Romans of Cæsar's day seldom used anything corresponding to modem artillery. In defending and attacking fortified places, however, engines of various kinds were employed for hurling missiles, and, in case of attacking, for battering down walls. As such engines could not easily be improvised, and must always be at hand in a campaign involving siege operations, it seems quite likely that a siege train would usually be carried with the army. That would involve a body of men who should see to its transportation and who should understand setting it up, using, and repairing it. Possibly a detachment of the fabri (§ 36) was entrusted with this work.
R. pp. 16-19.
§ 20. Of the exact construction of the Roman artillery of this period we have no precise accounts. We can only