§ 43. All the soldiers of the legion were clothed, armed, and equipped alike (Legionary p. 30, and Fig. 8). Next the skin was worn a sleeveless woollen shirt (tunica). Over this was a leathern coat strengthened by bands of metal across the breast and back and over the shoulders (lorica). The troops in Trajan's column are represented with tight‐ fitting trowsers (braccae) extending below the knee. It seems likely, however, that these did not come into use among the Romans until after Cæsar's time. Strips of cloth were quite probably worn wound around the thighs (feminalia) and around the shins (cruralia). The feet were protected by sandals (calcei), or by strong shoes not unlike those worn at the present time. Then, in cold or wet weather, the person was covered by the military cloak (sagum), a sort of woollen blanket. Of course this was laid aside in battle.
§ 44. The defensive armor consisted of helmet, greaves, and shield.
a. The helmet of the legionary (The Legionary, p. 30) was either of iron (cassis), or of leather or cork strengthened with brass (galea). That of the officer was distinguished by a plume of red or black feathers (crista).
b. The greaves (ocreae) were of bronze. They were used to protect the leg below the knee, and were held in place sometimes by straps, sometimes by their own stiffness. Usually but one was worn, on the right leg, as this was the one advanced in the fight.
c. The shield (scutum, Fig. 13) was of wood, covered with leather or with iron plates. In the centre was a boss