the private. The former seems likely to have been the ordinary relation of the pay; especially as we must remember that the centurion stood in rank and duties about midway between a sergeant and the captain of a company in a modern army. In the army of the United States, the private of infantry is paid $I3.00 a month; the sergeant $I7.00; and a captain receives $I800 a year. All are provided with food, clothing, and shelter. A day laborer in most of our cities can earn about $I.50 a day; about the rate of the private in the army, considering that the laborer has to provide for himself.
§ 53. During the civil wars, the stern discipline of the old Roman armies became much relaxed, and commanders had to resort to all manner of means to hold their armies in order. The transition from a citizen soldiery to a mercenary army, on the other hand, paved the way for a discipline more unrelenting than ever.
Lange, pp. 26 seqq.
But the best means of maintaining order then, as now, lay in constant employment. On the march, the daily fortification of the camp left the soldier little time to think of anything but his duty. On occasion of a longer pause than usual, the camp was to be further fortified and arranged, and guard duty must be performed constantly. The Roman method of war made the personal activity of the man an indispensable condition of success. Hence constant prac tice in the use of weapons was necessary; and this would quite fill out the time.
A. 71, 72.
Then, too, zeal and courage were rewarded no more by mere crowns of leaves, but by more substantial gifts in good coin. So we see that the Roman general was not confined for his discipline to mere brutality.
When generals endeavored to attach their soldiers to their persons, they had to allow them far more license than mere