in the field. In place of tents (tabernacula, pelles), the winter camp afforded huts which gave better protection against wind and weather. The arms were doubtless kept in the huts, and the pack-animals in sheds. Also more room could be taken than in the field.
§ 190. The Romans were accustomed to assail stronghoids in three ways, — by blockade (obsidio), by assault (oppugnatio repentina), and by formal siege (oppugnatio).
R. p. 137 seqq.
I. Blockade was used against places of great strength, especially if poorly provided with provisions ; and further if the location allowed a complete environment.
B. G. VII, 36, 69.
2. Assault (oppugnatio repentina, Fig. 32) was made on places of smaller importance, with weak fortifications, and well supplied with food. Of course emergencies might lead to the same method of attack on very strong places.
C. III, 80
3. Formal siege was resorted to against positions that were strongly fortified and well provisioned, so that neither of the preceding methods was of avail.
B. G. VII II.
§ 191. The blockade was accomplished by means of the circumvallation (circumvallatio). The besieged place was surrounded by fortifications. These consisted of strong redoubts (castella) at convenient places, connected by lines of wall and ditch (munitiones, brachia). * Outside of these lines lay the camp, or camps, of the blockading army. If an attempt at relief from without was to be feared, another line of works must be created, outside the first, and facing outwards. In modern warfare this latter line is called the circumvallation, and the inner one the contravallation. Cæsar does not use the latter term, and applies the former as has been explained.
B. G. VII. I5.
C. III, 43; B. G. VII, 69. B. G. VII, 68; C. III, 4I.