The debts, both intellectual and personal, which any individual incurs are numerous. They are often unstated and unrealized. To have the opportunity to acknowledge those debts formally is an infrequent but welcome privilege.
I am indebted to an excellent high school teacher, Maude Thomas, who excited my interest in the history of this nation. I shall long remain grateful to O. Lawrence Burnette, then on the faculty of Birmingham‐ Southern College, for the example of exemplary teaching and scholarship he provided. Similarly, I am indebted to Edward E. Younger of the University of Virginia for his guidance in the research and writing of this manuscript. He is indeed a gentleman, and the patience and constant encouragement he gave me were as indispensable as his scholarly advice and counsel.
In countless ways over the years of graduate school and since, four friends, William H. Leary, Richard G. Lowe, Robert M. Saunders, and Alfred Y. Wolff, have provided encouragement and the benefit of their criticism. James P. McPherson's shrewd understanding of Alabama politics as well as his friendship have been most valuable to me. Similarly Ralph and Myra Hammond of Arab, Alabama, have seen this project grow from an idea to a completed manuscript and have been unfailing in their hospitality and assistance.
Howard F. Mahan, Chairman of the Department of History of the University of South Alabama, was a source of gentle prodding and encouragement. The faculty in history which he has assembled and of which I was privileged to be a part during the period in which this manuscript was completed were remarkable for the sustenance and support they provided. Mrs. Doris Watt of the clerical staff of the Department was generous in offering both clerical assistance and personal support.
The Research Committee of the University of South Alabama generously made available funds that permitted me, in connection with another research project as well as this one, to use the papers of Aubrey