P = Pali, S = Sanskrit, E = English
Abhidhamma (P); Abhidharma (S): third section of early Buddhist Canon, on systematized teachings, psychology, philosophy.
Abhidharma-kośa (S): a key text of the Sarvāstivāda school, by Vasubandhu.
Abhidharma-kośa-bhās$$ya is his own commentary on this, mainly from the point of view of the Sautrāntika school.
Arahat (P); Arhat (S): a fully liberated saint who has experienced Nirvān$$a by uprooting and destroying his or her attachment, hatred and delusion.
Asan·ga: fourth- or fifth-century CE Indian author of a number of Mahāyāna treatises, especially of the Yogācāra school.
Asoka (P); Aśoka (S): Buddhist ruler (c. 268–239 BCE) of a large Indian empire; left many stone-carved edicts indicating his rule according to Buddhist social ethics.
Bodhi-caryāvatāra (S): a work of Śāntideva on the path of the Bodhisattva.
Bodhisatta (P); Bodhisattva (S): a being-for-enlightenment: one fully dedicated to becoming a perfect Buddha. In the Theravāda, mainly used for Gotama in many of his past lives, as described in the Jātakas. In the Mahāyāna, a being, human or divine, on the long Bodhisattva-path.
Bodhisattva-bhūmi (S): a text, by Asan·ga, on the stages of the Bodhisattva-path, with a substantial section on ethics.
Brahmanism: early form of Hinduism.
brahmin (E) (P and S brāhman$$a): a Hindu priest, member of the highest of four social classes in the Hindu system.
Buddhaghosa: famous Indian commentator on texts of Theravāda school. Active in fifth-century CE Sri Lanka.
Cakkavatti (P); Cakravartin (S): a 'wheel-turning' king: a compassionate and just emperor. Seen as a secular parallel to a Buddha.
Candrakīrti: late sixth-century CE Indian writer and commentator of the Mahāyāna Madhyamaka school.
Conditioned Arising (E) (P pat$$icca-samuppāda;S pratīya-samutpāda): also known as Dependent Origination. The doctrine that all mental and physical states arise from and depend on conditions. A common application of this principle is a series of twelve conditions, including spiritual ignorance and craving, culminating in the arising of dukkha.