The Catholic Revolution began on October 13, 1962. Cardinals Lienart and Frings rose to demand a free vote for the members of the commissions that would draft the texts of conciliar documents. With the support of Pope John XXIII, this event became the equivalent of the storming of the Bastille. The Council fathers began to realize that they could overcome the entrenched power of the Roman Curia. It would be possible to change the Church, not drastically, it seemed to them, but in certain important areas like liturgy, ecumenism, the interpretation of Scripture, attitudes toward Jews, and religious freedom. With the realization that they had the power to remake the Church, the bishops were swept by a euphoria, an effervescence, an extended moment of collective behavior.
They did not intend to intrude into fundamental doctrine— God, Jesus, Trinity, Eucharist, life after death. They did not intend to make any judgments about such matters as birth control, divorce, or masturbation—to say nothing of the marriage of