Most of the research for this book was done in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Germany, throughout 1996–8. Much of it would have been impossible without the kindness of many colleagues and friends in the region. I greatly benefited from the assistance and advice of, among others, Attila Ágh, Zora Bútorová, Michál Federowicz, György Földes, Peter Havas, Michal Illner, Wojciech Kaźmierczak, László Keri, János Kornai, Darina Malová, Grigorij Mesežnikov, Gero Neugebauer, Andrzej Rychard, Dieter Segert, Dana Šivaková, Andrej Školkaj, Jindriška Syllová, Jonathan Stein, Gábor Tóka, Peter Talas, Pal Tamás, Zbysław Thomas, Jiří Večernik, RafałWiśniewski, and Vera Žežulková. The EastWest Institute in Prague, the Institute of Sociology at the Czech Academy of Sciences, the Political Faculty of Comenius University, Central European University and the Open Society Archives in Budapest, and the Institute of Politics and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences all graciously hosted me at various points.
In the United States, I am grateful to many friends and colleagues, whose comments, criticisms, and advice have greatly improved this book. Several have read different parts of the manuscript, including Peter Andreas, Grzegorz Ekiert, Peter Hall, and Gary King. I am especially grateful to those who read the manuscript in its entirety: Joshua Berke, Kanchan Chandra, Ellen Comisso, Stephen Hanson, Pauline Jones Luong, Herbert Kitschelt, and Andrew Schwartz. Tassos Kalandrakis, Gary King, and Ken Shepsle patiently answered various technical questions, while Gary Bass, Marc Busch, and Tim Snyder provided a great deal of advice. Ben Frommer, Abby Innes, Kevin Krause, and Diana Morlang shared war stories, data, and sources alike. Above all, I am indebted to Timothy Colton, Grzegorz Ekiert, and Peter Hall, each of whom brought a wealth