The writing of a doctoral dissertation and its subsequent modification is often portrayed as a lonely experience, as much a test of one's fortitude in dealing with intellectual seclusion as a test of academic ability. Fortunately, this has not been my experience. I benefited greatly from the assistance, encouragement and friendship of many individuals, only a few of whom I am able to thank here.
During the course of writing my dissertation and in subsequently seeking to improve upon it my work received much needed criticism from the following people: Philip Allott, Blaine Baker, Ian Brownlie, Bob Byers, James Crawford, Deborah Cresswell, Anthony D'Amato, Anne Denise, Carol Dixon, Emanuela Gillard, Peter Haggenmacher, Benedict Kingsbury, Martti Koskenniemi, Heike Krieger, Claus Kress, Susan Lamb, Vaughan Lowe, Susan Marks, Frances Nicholson, Georg Nolte, Geneviève Saumier, Jayaprakash Sen, Bruno Simma, Stephen Toope, Thomas Viles and Arthur Weisburd. I thank them all.
Of these individuals, several deserve special mention. First and foremost, James Crawford provided everything a doctoral student could want from a supervisor. In particular, I wish to thank him for his patience during my Wrst year and a half in Cambridge, when I had little idea as to where my work was taking me.
In addition to James Crawford, I wish to thank Philip Allott, Blaine Baker and Peter Haggenmacher for being outstanding role models. Their commitment to excellence in teaching and scholarship is humbling.
Stephen Toope deserves special thanks for directing me to Cambridge, and for his belief that a PhD was something I could do, and would enjoy doing.
Jayaprakash Sen provided friendship and intellectual stimulation. I benefited greatly from his brilliance.
Frances Nicholson was not only a critical and imaginative editor, but also a forgiving and compassionate housemate.
Jochen Frowein, Georg Nolte and Andreas Zimmermann were gracious hosts during many visits to Heidelberg, while Katharine Edmunds,