With the fading and discrediting of the Soviet model, and with pariah status still afforded the Western bourgeois model, China had to eke out its own Chinese and socialist road from the late 1950s on. This search for a new and independent path led, with detours, to the radical, xenophobic, and aggressively populist restructuring of the social sciences. Beginning with the Anti-Rightist Campaign of 1957 and the Great Leap Forward the following year, Chinese academia was caught up in a great effort to apply Mao Zedong Thought to intellectual pursuits. As far as the anthropological sciences are concerned, this "Maoization" of academic disciplines can be seen as a form of sinicization, for what emerged in China was clearly unique. 1
In the mid-1950s, archaeology and paleoanthropology were in good shape. The grandfather of PRC archaeology, Xia Nai, often referred to the post-Liberation period as a Golden Age because there had been such growth both in the numbers of people working in the field and in government support for archaeological endeavors. Many paleoanthropological sites were worked during this period as well, including the old (and new) Zhoukoudian sites. 2 With central, provincial, and local government support, paleoanthropology and archaeology became truly national undertakings.
Ethnology and social research were also blossoming, as we have seen, with the great social history projects under way throughout the country by 1956 and