Stages and Pathways of Drug Involvement: Examining the Gateway Hypothesis

By Denise B. Kandel | Go to book overview

abuse disorder. Studies dating back to the 1970s suggest that adolescents tend to use alcohol and/or tobacco before marijuana, and marijuana and alcohol before other illicit drugs, such as cocaine and/or heroin. Research conducted by many of the authors assembled in this book has shown that there does appear to be an agreed-upon model of sequential stages of involvement with substances, which typically begins with beer and wine. Although there appears to be some variation in the model, each stage seems to play some kind of important role in the movement to the next stage, although this kind of staged progression is not a prerequisite for drug addiction. In fact, the majority of individuals at one stage do not progress to another stage. National drug use and behavior studies show that although a great many, perhaps even a majority of, adolescents have some experiences with alcohol and/or tobacco, most do not go on to become drug addicts. But the other side of the coin is clear: The majority of the nation's heaviest drug users did use tobacco and/or alcohol before using drugs like heroin or cocaine.

There is also new research emerging that shows that use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, and illicit drugs may be related to later psychiatric disorders. This finding adds yet another wrinkle to the drug use pattern dilemma. Not only do we have to consider that use of nicotine and alcohol may be a precursor to later drug abuse, but they may also open the door for later psychopathologies as well. Thus it is more critical than ever that prevention efforts be targeted to preteens and adolescents. It is also crucial that we keep our public health priorities in perspective and do not underestimate the health consequences associated with alcohol and tobacco use. They are major problems in their own way.

This book is not the final chapter on the question of gateways or pathways to drug use. But it is an excellent beginning of the next chapter. We now know there is no single factor that determines whether a person might abuse a substance; instead, substance abuse develops from the interaction of complex biological, psychological, and social/ environmental determinants. We as a society urgently need the research community to sort this all out further as quickly and as clearly as possible.

-xiv-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Stages and Pathways of Drug Involvement: Examining the Gateway Hypothesis
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 384

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.