Economic Change and the National Question in Twentieth-Century Europe

By Alice Teichova; Herbert Matis et al. | Go to book overview

NOTES
1
The Finnish language had been in a subordinate position while the language of administration, higher education and business had been Swedish, generally not known by the lower classes. The position of the Finnish language had improved somewhat since the 1860s. The language quarrel culminated in the 1930s in strikes at the University of Helsinki demanding a better position for the Finnish language in teaching and research. The conflict was solved by legislation that raised the Finnish language to the dominant position, but guaranteed the Swedish-speaking minority a fair position. See Pekka Kalevi Hämäläinen, Kielitaistelu Suomessa 1917–1939 [Language question 1917–1939], (Porvoo, 1968).
2
The russification programme (1899–1917) aimed at, for example, the gradual integration of the Russian and Finnish postal administrations, joining Finland to Russian military organisations, russification of the Finnish senate (government) and joining Finland to the Russian legislative system. See, for example, Jussi T. Lappalainen, Itsenäisen Suomen synty [The emergence of the independent Finland], (Jyväskylä, 1967), p. 19.
3
See E. J. Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism since 1780. Programme, Myth, Reality (Cambridge, 1994). Hobsbawm does not discuss economic aspects in this book — he discusses political, language and cultural matters.
4
Miroslav Hroch, Social Preconditions of National Revival in Europe (Cambridge, 1985).
5
Douglass C. North, 'Where have we been and where are we going?' (published on the internet at http://econwpa.wustl.edu/eprints/eh/papers/ 9612/9612001.abs), p. 10. See also Douglass C. North, Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance (Cambridge, 1994) and Douglass C. North, 'The process of economic change', paper presented at the UNU/Wider Project Meeting on New Models of Provision and Financing of Public Goods, Helsinki, 1997.
6
Erkki Pihkala, 'Suomen ja Venäjän taloudelliset suhtteet I maailmansodan aikana' [The economic relations between Russia and Finland during the First World War], Historiallinen aikakauskirja 1 (1980), 29–42;Per Schybergson, 'Finlands industri och den ryska marknaden under autonomins tid (1809–1917), Några synpunkter' [Finnish industry and the Russian market during the autonomuos period], Turun Historiallinen Arkisto 41 (1986), 120–35; Jorma Ahvenainen, 'Suomen ja Neuvostoliiton väliset kauppasuhteet 1920-ja 1930-luvalla' [Trade relations between Finland and the Soviet Union in the 1920s and 1930s], Turun Historiallinen Arkisto 41 (1986), 168–85; Riitta Hjerppe, The Finnish Economy 1860–1985, Growth and Structural Change (Helsinki, 1989).
7
The Finns could export handicrafts and cottage industry products as well as agricultural and forestry products duty free to Russia. Industrial products had relatively high duty-free quotas. Russian products came to Finland duty free except for a group consisting mainly of luxury goods with financial tariffs. See, for example, Schybergson, 'Finlands industri'.

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