NOTES

Louis Riel: Insanity and Prophecy
Thomas Flanagan

I am indebted to my colleagues Howard Palmer (History) and W. R. Blair (Psychology) for reading the paper and making comments which have been most helpful in the revision. It is a pleasure also to acknowledge the financial support of my research which has been provided by the National Museum of Man and the Canada Council.

1
The following articles are by psychiatric specialists: Edouard Desjardins and Charles Dumas, "Le complexe médical de Louis Riel", L'Union médicale du Canada, no. 99, 1970, pp. 1656- 1661, 1870-1878; "The Life and Death of Louis Riel", Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, no. 10, 1965, pp. 244-264 (articles by E. R. Markson, Cyril Green- land, R. E. Turner); C. K. Clarke, "A Critical Study of the Case of Louis Riel", Queen's Quarterly , no. 12, 1905, pp. 379-388; no. 13, 1905, pp. 14-26; Daniel Clark, "A Few Canadian Cases in Criminal Courts in Which the Plea of Insanity was Presented", Trans- actions of the American Medico- Psychological Association , no. 2, 1895, pp. 183-190; Clark, "A Psycho-Medical History of Louis Riel", American Journal of In- sanity, no. 44, July 1887-88, pp. 33-51; W. W. Ireland, Through the Ivory Gates, Edinburgh, 1889, pp. 229-264; H. Gilson, "Etude sur l'état mental de Louis Riel", L'Encéphale , no. 6, 1886, pp. 51-60; Drs. Bourque & Gil- son, "La folie de Riel et la justice anglaise", L'Union médicale du Canada, 1885, pp. 561-4. Two studies by laymen are: Olive Knox, "The Question of Louis Riel's Insanity", Papers Read Before the Historical and Scien- tific Society of Manitoba , Series III, no. 6, 1951, pp. 20-34; Frank Anderson, "Louis Riel's Insanity Reconsidered", Saskatchewan History, no. 3, 1950, pp. 104-110.
2
For example: G. F. G. Stanley, Louis Riel, Toronto, 1963, pp. 222-28; E. B. Osler, The Man who Had to Hang, Toronto, 1961, pp. 171 ff; Hartwell Bowsfield, Louis Riel: The Rebel and the Hero, Toronto, 1971, pp. 75-78.
3
Thomas S. Szasz, The Myth of Mental Illness, New York, 1961; Law, Liberty, and Psychiatry , New York, 1963; The Manufac- ture of Madness, New York, 1970.
4
Courrier du Canada, June 11, 1885. Partial text of a letter writ- ten by Riel at Beauport asylum. The original is missing.
5
See particularly "Louis 'David' Riel: Prophet, Priest-King, In- fallible Pontiff", Journal of Canadian Studies, no. 9, August, 1974, pp. 15-25. See also "Louis Riel's Religious Beliefs: A Letter to Bishop Taché", Saskatchewan History, no. 27, Winter; 1974, pp. 15-28; "The Mission of Louis

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