Meadows et al. (1972). The model projected that if the world economy continued to expand over the following fifty years as the
economy of the United States had over the fifty previous years,
then the entire system would collapse through the exhaustion of
the supply of crucial materials and pollution from the massive increase in materials-intensive industrial production.
The 1987 Brundtland Report of the World Commision on Environment and Development defined sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. ”
Implicit in this definition are the following ideas: (1) environmental matters should be incorporated into economic policies; and (2)
economic development should promote intergenerational and geographical equity. Sustainable development has been discussed in
detail by many academics including: Jacobs (1991), Pearce et al.
(1989), Pezzey (1989), and Redclift (1987).
Those ecosystem services and functions used in this study include: gas regulation, climate regulation, disturbance regulation,
water regulation, water supply, erosion control and sediment retention, soil formation, nutrient cycling, waste treatment, pollination, biological control, refugia, food production, raw materials,
genetic resources, recreation, and cultural services. Ecosystem
“goods” were included with ecosystem services.
The objective of this project is to promote environmentally sensitive practices in the development of nonrenewable natural resources and to contribute to the development of mechanisms and
methodological tools that enhance the well-being of communities
affected by mining projects. This project is being undertaken by
the Mining and Energy Research Network at the University of Warwick, United Kingdom, Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI), in
New Dehli, India, and Institut National del environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), in Bogota, Colombia.
CI first conducted the “hotspot analysis” in 1990. It was reviewed
and updated in 1996. Designation as a biodiversity hotspot is
based on two criteria: the number of endemic species an ecosystem
contains and the degree of threat it faces. Despite occupying less
than 2 percent of the Earth's land area, the hotspots contain more
than 40 percent of terrestrial species that exist nowhere else (endemics).
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1989.
“Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. ” Draft. U. S. Public Health Service, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta,
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1992. “Toxicological Profile for Mercury. ” Draft. U. S. Public
Health Service, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services,
Atlanta, Ga. http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1993. Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride
and Fluorine. U. S. Public Health Service, U. S. Department of