Cartesian Metaphysics: The Late Scholastic Origins of Modern Philosophy

By Jorge Secada | Go to book overview

Notes

PROLOGUE
1
See Sebba (1964), Chappell and Doney (1984) and the 'Bulletin Cartésien' published in the Archives de philosophie since 1972.
2
I, 2, 403b 20–3 in Aristotle (1984), I, p. 643. See also Metaphysics, I, 3, 983a–983b in Aristotle (1984), II, p. 1555.
3
Taylor (1984), pp. 22 and 20–1.
4
See Rorty R. (1984). For a brief overview see the entry under 'Historiography' in Becker and Becker (2000). For an example of how lack of philosophical understanding can lead to historical error, see Secada (1990), pp. 62–3, note 20.

1
DESCARTES'S ESSENTIALIST METAPHYSICS
1
Gouhier (1978), p. 184; and Kenny (1968), pp. 64–5.
2
See Kenny (1968), ibid.; and Loeb (1981), p. 92. Gouhier (1978) suggested a link between, on the one hand, the opposing Scholastic and Cartesian doctrines about the order of knowledge of essence and of existence and, on the other, 'deux philosophies de la connaissance… deux anthropologies… deux théodicées'(p. 185). But Gouhier apparently took Descartes's doctrine to apply only to the demonstration of God's existence and did not examine it in any detail even within this restricted context; see pp. 184–6. Gilson (1975) claims that in the proof of God's existence from the idea of God 'comme ailleurs, le “quid est” passe avant le “an est”, et il peut passer avant, parce que'à la différence de la scolastique, le cartésianisme admet que “a nosse ad esse valet consequentia'” (p. 211). Nevertheless, this obscure suggestion is not developed. See also Beyssade (1979), p. 278, n. 5; and Gilson (1912), pp. 67, 70–1, and 72–3.
3
I generally use the term 'Cartesian' and its cognates to refer to doctrines or conceptions which Descartes explicitly avowed or which follow from what he did explicitly maintain, according to deductive principles he accepted. Terms such as 'Aristotelian', 'Platonic', 'Thomist' and their cognates are used much more loosely to describe notions or beliefs associated with the corresponding authors or their followers. My use of 'Scholastic' and its cognates is similarly imprecise. The Scholastic philosophers whom I will usually have in mind are St Thomas and the sixteenth-century Jesuits Suárez, Pedro de Fonseca, and Francisco Toledo.
4
The text in Aristotle is II, 7, 92b 4–8; Aristotle (1984), I, p. 152.
5
Differences of opinion as to the distinction between essence and existence have no bearing on views on the priority of knowledge of existence over knowledge of

-270-

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Cartesian Metaphysics: The Late Scholastic Origins of Modern Philosophy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents *
  • Preface ix
  • Abbreviations xii
  • Prologue 1
  • Part I - The Unity of Cartesian Metaphysics 5
  • 1 - Descartes's Essentialist Metaphysics 7
  • 2 - Scepticism, Scholasticism, and the Origins of Descartes's Philosophy 27
  • 3 - Cartesian Real Essences 55
  • Part II - Ideas and the Road from Essence to Existence 75
  • 4 - Ideas and the World in the Mind 77
  • 5 - My Wax, My Intellect and I 115
  • 6 - Essentialism and the Existence of God 148
  • Part III - Cartesian Substances 181
  • 7 - The Substantial Tension 183
  • 8 - The Essence and the Existence of Cartesian Substances 205
  • 9 - The Real Distinction or the Body and the Minds 236
  • Epilogue 265
  • Notes 270
  • References 307
  • Index 323
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