Glossary
aedicula(e) a small niche, generally containing the image of a deity either free-standing or in relief and serving as a shrine.
aerarius a bronzesmith.
antefix a vertical ornament on the edge of a roof or apex of the gable.
apodyterium the undressing-room of a bath-house.
aquila an eagle. The term is generally used of the legionary Eagle (standard).
askos (askoi) lit. ‘a wine-skin’; a container in the form of a wine-skin though the Roman custom was for a pair of these to be carried round at a feast containing water with which to dilute the wine.
avatar term used of different manifestations or incarnations of a deity.
barbotine a method of decorating pottery by trailing slip over its surface.
basilica a hall with aisles and clerestory lighting; esp. used for the Roman town-hall.
basilica principiorum the hall of the headquarters’ building in a fort.
beneficiarius consularis a soldier detached from routine duties to serve on the staff of a provincial governor, esp. for policing.
birrus a hooded cape; one version the birrus britannicus was especially associated with the province.
breccia a composite rock, consisting of angular fragments of stone cemented together by some matrix such as lime.
bucranium a ox-scull, often included in decorative reliefs from temples and altars and also found in funerary contexts.
cameo a gemstone so cut that the device is in relief.
canabae lit. ‘the booths’, refering to the civil settlement outside a legionary fortress.
cantharus a cup or vase with two vertical handles.
cella the central chamber or sanctuary of a temple.
chamfrein a frontlet, protecting the head of a horse.
chiton a long garment worn by women (Greek).
chi-rho a monogram formed of the first two letters, χ and P of Christ’s name in Greek (ΧPIΣTOΣ); see labarum,
cingulum a belt.
civitas lit. a community or state; in the north-western provinces it refers to a tribal territory with its capital.
clipeate something circular or ovoid like a shield.
collegium a society (or college), generally with religious and ‘friendly’ functions like a medieval guild.
colonia a chartered town of Roman citizens, frequently first settled by legionary veterans (e.g. Colchester, Gloucester, Lincoln) but sometimes a status awarded as an honour (York).
cupellation a refining process, whereby precious metal is extracted from lead and other base metals.
diatretum a glass cage-cup made by undercutting the surface layer of a vessel so that it appears to be enclosed in an openwork cage.
dichroic(glass) glass which shows two colours according to whether it is viewed by transmitted or reflected light.
domus a house; the term is employed in connection with fairly grand town residences, much as the way in which ‘town house’ was used in the eighteenth/ nineteenth centuries.
emblema(ta) the device(s) in the centre of a mosaic floor or an item of silver plate.
forum the central market-square of a town, with the basilica (q.v. ) on one side.
frigidarium the cold-room of a bath-house.
hacksilber a German term for the broken pieces of silver-plate found in the bullion hoards of Late Antiquity.
honestiores the term used for the upper orders of Late Roman society in contradistinction to the inferior humiliores.
imaginifer in the army, the bearer of the standard with the emperor’s image.
imbricated resembling overlapping roof-tiles (from imbrex a tile).
insula lit. ‘an island’, used of a city block.
intaglio a gemstone with the device cut in negative image into the stone, enabling it to be used as a seal or signet.
labarum the chi-rho standard used by Constantine after the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, and by his successors. It seems to be derived from the vexillum laureum, the standard wreathed to indicate victory.
labrum a wash-basin.
lanx a large plate or dish, sometimes rectangular (Corbridge, Risley Park) though great circular plates such as that from Mildenhall may have been called lanxes.
lapidarius a sculptor or carver of monumental inscriptions.
lappet A flap like those on the sides of some hats and boots or the pteryges (q.v. ) worn by soldiers.
lararium the domestic shrine, housing images of the household gods (lares) and other deities.

-213-

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The Art of Roman Britain
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 3
  • Contents 5
  • Illustrations 6
  • Introduction 9
  • Chapter One - The Art of the Celts 13
  • Chapter Two - Art in the Era of the Conquest 24
  • Chapter Three - Art and the Roman Army 42
  • Chapter Four - The Uses of Art in Roman Britain 58
  • Chapter Five - Natives and Strangers in Roman Britain 79
  • Chapter Six - Artists and Their Patrons 106
  • Chapter Seven - Art in Late Roman Britain 138
  • Chapter Eight - Attitudes to the Art of Roman Britain 174
  • Notes and References 191
  • Bibliography 204
  • Glossary 213
  • Index 215
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