Central Asia: Aspects of Transition

By Tom Everett-Heath | Go to book overview

3

ETHNO-TERRITORIAL CLAIMS IN THE FERGHANA VALLEY DURING THE PROCESS OF NATIONAL DELIMITATION, 1924-7

Arslan Koichiev


Ferghana before 1924: administrative-territorial division and ethnic distribution

With the defeat of the poly-ethnic Kokand khanate in 1876, its heartland, the Ferghana Valley, became totally subjugated to a colonial regime. Long before this, Russian forces had conquered the western region of the valley, the present-day Hodjent oblast of the Tajik Republic. It became an administrative sub-region, or uyezd, of the Samarkand oblast, under the authority of the Syr Darya governor-general. The Ferghana Valley’s colonial era was marked by the introduction of a new system of administrative-territorial management, based on a vertical structure, through which the governor-general of Turkestan, directly appointed by the Tsar, administered newly conquered lands.

The Ferghana Valley was declared an oblast and comprised several uyezd-level administrative territories. These were ruled through volost-level administrations. In the main, neither volost nor uyezd boundaries matched the dispersion of different ethnic indigenous groups. In most cases, the volost - the lowest tier in the structure of colonial management - comprised multi-ethnic entities. The Ferghana Valley was home to both sedentary and nomadic populations, and this co-existence affected the formation of colonial administrative borders. Nomadic, semi-nomadic and sedentary people were all to be found in each of the administrative units.

The Ferghana oblast was made up of five uyezds during the Tsarist period: Andijan, Namangan, Kokand, Ferghana (formerly Skobelev) and Osh. This structure was unchanged during the early years of the Soviet period, and the various sub-levels served as administrative units when the political map of the valley was subsequently defined. The Andijan uyezd included 22 volosts, Namangan uyezd 28 volosts, Kokand 23 volosts, Ferghana 19 volosts, and Osh 15 volosts. The proportions of nomadic and semi-nomadic peoples varied greatly between uyezds (see Table 3.1).

-45-

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Central Asia: Aspects of Transition
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgements ix
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Turkfront 5
  • 2 - The Kokand Autonomy, 1917-18 30
  • Notes 44
  • 3 - Ethno-Territorial Claims in the Ferghana Valley During the Process of National Delimitation, 1924-7 45
  • 4 - Land and Water ‘reform’ in the 1920s 57
  • 5 - Nation Building in Turkey and Uzbekistan 80
  • 6 - Nation Building and Identity in the Kyrgyz Republic 106
  • 7 - The Use of History 132
  • 8 - Soviet Development in Central Asia 146
  • 9 - Environmental Issues in Central Asia 167
  • 11 - The Uzbek Mahalla 205
  • Notes 217
  • 12 - ‘Fundamentalism’ in Central Asia 219
  • Notes 240
  • 13 - Water 244
  • Bibliography 264
  • Index 283
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