Central Asia: Aspects of Transition

By Tom Everett-Heath | Go to book overview

Notes

This article was originally published in German in Anthropos, 95, 2000, pp. 206-18.

1
The Mahalla committee as an administrative unit was introduced in the 1920s. See Viktoria Koroteyeva, A. Ginsburg and E. Makarova, ‘Community Structures in a Modern Uzbek City’, Études Orientales, 13/14, 1994, p. 205. The first mention of the Mahalla in an official, normative text appears in the decree of the president of the Supreme Soviet of the SSR Uzbekistan of 4 July 1983 concerning ‘the reinforcement of the status of the Mahalla, city and village committees’.
2
The main differences between Soviet and post-Soviet Mahallas are: first, since 1990, civil servants have received a monthly wage (see Koroteyeva et al., op. cit., p. 209); second, the reinforcement of the relations between the Mahalla committee and the superior administrative authority, the Hokimiyat; and, third, the changes in terminology concerning the Mahalla, from Russian to Uzbek (often directly translated).
3
Law of 2 September 1993 ‘toward organs of legal self-administration of the people of the Republic of Uzbekistan’. One may attribute a symbolic meaning to this date, since it is the day following a national holiday celebrating two years of independence. On 21 September 1993, an accompanying decree was issued (the law’s taking of effect; definition of the territory of each Mahalla and organisation of Mahalla elections for no later than 1 December 1993; annulment of all previous laws and decrees concerning the Mahalla).
4
Data from the national Mahalla fund. Noted in P. Bussière, Les Mahallas en Ouzbékistan, Ambassade de France en Ouzbékistan (Tashkent, 1994).
5
Julia M. Eckert, Das unabhängige Uzbekistan. Auf dem Weg von Marx zu Timur. Politische Strategien der Konfliktregelung in einem Vielvölkerstaat (Münster: LIT, 1996), p. 43.
6
See the Presidential Decree of 10 December 1996, ‘Bolali oilalarni davlat tomonidan kullab-kuvatlashni janada kushajtirish to’grisida’, and its confirmation, ‘16 joshgacha bolalari bulgan boilalarga nafakalar tayinlash va tulash to’grisida Nizom - Umumij Koidalar’.
7
Islam Karimov, speech of 25 September 1994 before the National Assembly.
8
Islam Karimov. Quoted in Shavkat Mirolimov, Mahalla Mehri (Tashkent, 1994), p. 3.
9
The Presidential Decree of 24 April 1998 increases the wage of Mahalla servants and allows them to draw also a pension. See Toshkent Oqshomi, No. 47, 24 April 1998, p. 1.
10
For a precise description of the structure, tasks and legal status of Mahalla offices, see Shuhrat Jalilov, Davlat Hokimiyati mahalliy organlari islohoti: Tajriba va muammolar (Tashkent, 1994), pp. 125-57.
11
Law of 2 September 1997, Title VII, article 22.
12
This is also ordered by the law of 2 September 1993.
13
In Uzbekistan, the term ‘Hokimiyat designates an administrative unit inherited from the Russian-Soviet administrative structure. Hokimiyat means in Uzbek ‘power’ or ‘domination’ and, according to this, ‘Hokim’ means governor, prefect of an administrative unit. The main Hokims are directly subordinate to the president: they are nominated and removed from office by the president, and are responsible to him alone. The Uzbek Republic is administratively divided in regions (viloyat), cities (shahar), departments (tuman), towns (shaharchi), villages (qishloq) and districts (Mahalla). There are Hokimiyat and Hokim at the level of regions, cities and departments.
14
Law of 2 September 1993, Title VII, article 22.
15
Gregory Gleason, ‘Fealty and Loyalty: Informal Authority Structures in Soviet Asia’, Soviet Studies, Vol. 43 (4), pp. 613-28. Gleason refers to the Central Asian Soviet Republics as ‘internal colonies’ (p. 614).
16
See the law of 2 September 1993.

-217-

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Central Asia: Aspects of Transition
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgements ix
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Turkfront 5
  • 2 - The Kokand Autonomy, 1917-18 30
  • Notes 44
  • 3 - Ethno-Territorial Claims in the Ferghana Valley During the Process of National Delimitation, 1924-7 45
  • 4 - Land and Water ‘reform’ in the 1920s 57
  • 5 - Nation Building in Turkey and Uzbekistan 80
  • 6 - Nation Building and Identity in the Kyrgyz Republic 106
  • 7 - The Use of History 132
  • 8 - Soviet Development in Central Asia 146
  • 9 - Environmental Issues in Central Asia 167
  • 11 - The Uzbek Mahalla 205
  • Notes 217
  • 12 - ‘Fundamentalism’ in Central Asia 219
  • Notes 240
  • 13 - Water 244
  • Bibliography 264
  • Index 283
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