Central Asia: Aspects of Transition

By Tom Everett-Heath | Go to book overview

Notes
1
Uwe Halbach, ‘Der Islam in der GUS: Eine Wiedergeburt?’, Berichte des Bundesinstituts für ostwissenschaftliche und internationale Studien, No. 25 (1996), p. 13.
2
In that respect, Marxist-Leninist theory resembled Western modernisation theories of the 1960s and 1970s. See Dale F. Eickelman and James Piscatori, Muslim Politics (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996), pp. 22ff.
3
Ibid., p. 7.
4
P. Goble, ‘Islamic “Explosion” Possible in Central Asia’ in Radio Liberty Report on the USSR 2, No. 7, 16 February 1990, pp. 22-3, quoted in Anatoly M. Khazanov, After the USSR: Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Politics in the Commonwealth of Independent States (Madison and London: University of Wisconsin Press, 1995), pp. 131f.
5
For example, Alexandre Bennigsen and Marie Broxup, The Islamic Threat to the Soviet Union (London: Croom Helm, 1983), pp. 148f.
6
Yurij Kulchik, Andrey Fadin and Victor Sergeev, Central Asia after the Empire (London: Pluto Press, 1996), p. 55.
7
Bassam Tibi, Die fundamentalistische Herausforderung (Munich: C. H. Beck, 1992), pp. 172ff. Tibi never questions the reason behind the Russian and Soviet defamation of the Muslim south but accepts that their perception of a threat was justified.
8
Dale F. Eickelman (ed. ), Russia’s Muslim Frontiers: New Directions in Cross-Cultural Analysis (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993), p. 2. For a short discussion on this issue see also Halbach, op. cit., p. 3. Another problem is that most of the existing data unearthed by Soviet and Russian scholars are in the original Russian. Many Western specialists on Islam do not read Russian and have to rely on second-hand information.
9
The anti-Muslim policy differed from period to period. After the purges, and under the impression of national unity during the Second World War, repression became less evident. Anti-Muslim policy was enforced again under Khrushchev and finally restricted during perestroika.
10
Halbach, op. cit., p. 12.
11
A. Abduvakhitov, ‘Islamic Revivalism in Uzbekistan’, in Eickelman (ed. ), op. cit., p. 80.
12
For example, the worshipping of bushes, rocks and other objects of nature and other forms of religious syncretism. See Halbach, op. cit., p. 14; Diloram Ibrahim, The Islamization of Central Asia (Leicester: Islamic Foundation, 1993), p. 21.
13
For example, Bennigsen and Broxup, op. cit.
14
Halbach, op. cit., pp. 20f.
15
Lowell Bezanis, ‘Exploiting the Fear of Militant Islam’ in Transition Vol. 1 (24), 1995), p. 9.
16
Halbach, op. cit., p. 15f.
17
Shireen T. Hunter, ‘The Rise of Islamist Movements and the Western Response: Clash of Civilizations or Clash of Interests?’, in Laura Guazzone (ed. ), The Islamist Dilemma (Reading: Garnet, 1995), pp. 320 ff.
18
Space prevents a more detailed presentation of thesis on political Islam. A good overview of the different approaches is given by Hanna Lücke, Islamischer Fundamentalismus (Berlin: Klaus Schwartz Verlag, 1993).
19
William E. Shepard, ‘Islam and Ideology: Towards a Typology’, International Journal for Middle East Studies, Vol. 19, 1987, pp. 314-17.
20
Laura Guazzone, ‘Islamism and Islamists in the Contemporary Arab World’ in Guazzone (ed. ), op. cit., p. 4.
21
Ibid., p. 3.
22
Shirin Akiner, ‘Islam, the State and Ethnicity in Central Asia in Historical Perspective’, Religion, State & Society, Vol. 24, Nos 2/3, 1996, pp. 47f.

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Central Asia: Aspects of Transition
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgements ix
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Turkfront 5
  • 2 - The Kokand Autonomy, 1917-18 30
  • Notes 44
  • 3 - Ethno-Territorial Claims in the Ferghana Valley During the Process of National Delimitation, 1924-7 45
  • 4 - Land and Water ‘reform’ in the 1920s 57
  • 5 - Nation Building in Turkey and Uzbekistan 80
  • 6 - Nation Building and Identity in the Kyrgyz Republic 106
  • 7 - The Use of History 132
  • 8 - Soviet Development in Central Asia 146
  • 9 - Environmental Issues in Central Asia 167
  • 11 - The Uzbek Mahalla 205
  • Notes 217
  • 12 - ‘Fundamentalism’ in Central Asia 219
  • Notes 240
  • 13 - Water 244
  • Bibliography 264
  • Index 283
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