The World of Juba II and Kleopatra Selene: Royal Scholarship on Rome's African Frontier

By Duane W. Roller | Go to book overview

3

JUBA’S YOUTH AND EDUCATION

The infant Juba II arrived in Rome and participated in Caesar’s African triumph of 46BC. He then spent his youth and adolescence in the households of Caesar’s heirs, exalted company that exposed him to the most talented military and intellectual leaders of the emergent Augustan regime, eventually accompanying Augustus on campaign, receiving Roman citizenship, and marrying a royal wife. Thus when Augustus eventually placed him on the throne of Mauretania, young Juba was eminently trained both politically and culturally to be the implementer of Augustan policy in northwest Africa.

The exact date of Juba’s birth is not known. The first documentation of him is the appearance at Caesar’s triumph, at which he was described as a

2 words that imply extreme youth. 3 The failure of the sources to cite a specific age indicates that he might have been only a few months old, and probably at most 2 years of age, which would make him just over 20 when he received the kingship in 25BC. Thus his birth was perhaps in early 48BC, when his father was at the peak of his career after the victory at the Bagradas.

1 Appian, Civil War 2.101.

2 Plutarch, Caesar 55. None of the other accounts of Caesar’s triumph (for which see supra, Chapter 1, note 176) mentions Juba. Appian and Plutarch probably used the history of Asinius Pollio (consul in 40BC), who was with Caesar in Africa and was specifically cited by Plutarch (Caesar 46) as a source; on Appian’s use of Asinius Pollio, see Alain M. Gowing, The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992), pp. 3, 40.

3 Both are standard Greek words for “infancy. ” They are often used together: see, for example, Euripides, Ion 1399, where Kreusa described her son. The words are common in Greek literature from Homer on:

seems more often to refer to animals, to humans. Rarely is there any other definition, and there is no reason to assume that either Appian or Plutarch used these complementary words in any but their most common meaning.

4 There seems no evidence for the specific ages offered by modern commentators, such as 4 (Matthias Gelzer, Caesar: Politician and Statesman, trans. Peter Needham [Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968], p. 284, and Elizabeth Rawson, “Caesar, Civil War and Dictatorship, ” CAH2 9, 1994, 436) or about 6 (J. P. D. V. Balsdon, Romans and Aliens [London: Duckworth, 1979], pp. 46, 203). Gsell (vol. 8, p. 207) called him “très jeune” at the time of the triumph and stated that he was born “vers 50. ” None of these suggestions seems consistent with the Greek: ages of 4 to 6 would imply that Juba was a

rather than a or . See infra, p. 74, for evidence of Juba’s birthdate based on his military service.

-59-

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The World of Juba II and Kleopatra Selene: Royal Scholarship on Rome's African Frontier
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Juba’s Numidian Ancestry 11
  • 2 - Mauretania 39
  • 3 - Juba’s Youth and Education 59
  • 4 - Kleopatra Selene 76
  • 5 - The Mauretanian Client Kingdom 91
  • 6 - The Artistic and Cultural Program of Juba and Kleopatra Selene 119
  • 7 - Rex Literatissimus 163
  • 8 - Libyka 183
  • 9 - The Eastern Expedition with Gaius Caesar 212
  • 10 - On Arabia 227
  • 11 - The Mauretanian Dynasty 244
  • Epilogue 257
  • Appendix 1 261
  • Appendix 2 264
  • Appendix 3 267
  • Bibliography 276
  • List of Passages Cited 310
  • Index 319
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