Latinos: Remaking America

By Marcelo M. Suárez-Orozco; Mariela M. Páez | Go to book overview

Chapter 3
Power and Identity
Miami Cubans
Alex Stepick and Carol Dutton Stepick

INTRODUCTION

On April 30, 2000, close to one hundred thousand Latinos, overwhelmingly Miami Cubans, 1 marched through the streets of Little Havana. Miami Cubans, along with significant numbers of other Latinos, were united. And they had become united in response to what they perceived as discrimination from the larger society, what has been called “reactive ethnicity” (Portes and Bach 1984). They were protesting the U. S. government's treatment of a six-year-old Cuban rafter boy who had been staying with his Miami Cuban relatives. His Cuban father wanted the boy back, but the Miami Cuban relatives and their supporters refused to give him up, claiming that he would suffer incomparably in Castro's Cuba. The U. S. government forcibly removed the child, much to the horror of Miami Cubans. They could not understand how the United States could side with Castro's government. After the boy was seized, the community was left stunned by the sense that the U. S. government had ignored the claims of Miami Cubans who had so stalwartly opposed communism and had become so successful in the United States.

First-generation Miami Cuban immigrants have achieved economic and political power unprecedented in the entire history of U. S. immigrants. They have come to expect success. Not only are Cubans the most economically successful Latinos in the United States, but for forty years they have evinced an extraordinary solidarity based upon an identity as intransigent anticommunist Cuban patriots.

Up close, however, the vivid picture of Miami Cuban power and success dissolves into multiple conflicting and confusing images. By the end of June 2000, two months after one hundred thousand demonstrated in the streets, cracks in Miami Cuban solidarity slowly, fitfully reemerged— fractures that had developed over the past fifteen years of the twentieth

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Latinos: Remaking America
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Introduction - The Research Agenda 1
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Part One - Histories, Migrations, and Communities 39
  • Chapter 1 - Latino History in the New Millennium 45
  • Notes *
  • Chapter 2 - Caribbean Latinos in Historical Perspective 59
  • Notes *
  • Chapter 3 - Miami Cubans 75
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Commentary 93
  • Notes *
  • Chapter 4 - Community Dynamics and the Rise of Street Gangs 97
  • References *
  • Chapter 5 - Gender, Ethnicity, and Race in School and Work Outcomes of Second-Generation Mexican Americans 110
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Chapter 6 - Mutual Transformation 126
  • Notes *
  • Commentary 146
  • Chapter 7 - Latino Religious Life in the United States 150
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Chapter 8 - Mass Public Responses to the “new” Latino Immigration to the United States 165
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Chapter 9 - The Effects of 1996 U. S. Immigration Reform on Communities and Families in Texas, El Salvador, and Mexico 190
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Commentary 202
  • References *
  • Part Two - Health, Families, Languages, Education, and Politics 207
  • Chapter 10 - The Latino Health Research Agenda for the Twenty-First Century 215
  • References *
  • Chapter 11 - Latinos' Access to Employment-Based Health Insurance 236
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Commentary 254
  • Chapter 12 - From Braceros in the Fields to Braceras in the Home 259
  • References *
  • Chapter 13 - Risk and Resilience in Latino Immigrant Families 274
  • References *
  • Chapter 14 - The Plasticity of Culture and Psychodynamic and Psychosocial Processes in Latino Immigrant Families 289
  • References *
  • Commentary 302
  • References *
  • Chapter 15 - Mapping the Research Agenda 306
  • Note *
  • References *
  • Chapter 16 - Latin@ Languages and Identities 321
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Chapter 17 - Guideposts for the Nation 339
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Commentary 359
  • Chapter 18 - The Schooling of Latino Children 362
  • Notes *
  • References 372
  • Chapter 19 - Affirmative Action, X Percent Plans, and Latino Access to Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century 375
  • References *
  • Commentary 389
  • Notes *
  • Chapter 20 - Latino Participation in American Elections 398
  • Note *
  • References *
  • Chapter 21 - Gender and Citizenship in Latino Political Participation 410
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Commentary 430
  • Note *
  • Epilogue - Racial Diversity and Corporate Identity in the Latino Community 435
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Afterword - American Projections 457
  • Notes *
  • Notes on Contributors 463
  • Index 467
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