Latinos: Remaking America

By Marcelo M. Suárez-Orozco; Mariela M. Páez | Go to book overview

Chapter 4
Community Dynamics
and the Rise of Street Gangs
Diego Vigil

The roots of Chicano gangs in Los Angeles can be traced to the settlement patterns Mexican immigrants typically had to follow in a city that was ill prepared for their integration. Being forced into isolated and physically substandard neighborhoods (barrios and colonias) had a series of repercussions; for example, Mexicans were socially distanced and made to feel inferior and marginal. Thus the children of the immigrants started off socially and psychologically marginalized, and conventional socialization routines were largely unavailable to them. This chapter outlines why ecological and socioeconomic factors figure prominently in the segregation and isolation of Mexicans and examines how the rate and direction of acculturation were undermined by these conditions. In the wake of maladaptation from such strains and pressures, a street youth population emerged and evolved into a gang subculture. The power of place and that of space are noteworthy in these developments.

These changes date from the aftermath of the 1910 Mexican Revolution. After large-scale immigration from Mexico, street groups of secondgeneration Mexican American youths began to emerge. More established gangs can be traced from at least the 1930s (Bogardus 1926, 1934; Vigil 1993b). Youth street groups that began rather innocuously as loose assemblages of wayward children had solidified and evolved within twenty years into formal gangs with a more destructive, violent bent to their routines and rhythms. Why did these transformations occur in such a short period of time? Much of what is recounted here about developments in the early decades of the twentieth century is reminiscent of what scholars several decades later have noted about “shantytown” migrant enclaves in various Latin American nations (Lomnitz 1977; Leeds 1974). Indeed, similar types of youth street groups have been noted in Mexico City (Lomnitz 1978) and

-97-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Latinos: Remaking America
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Introduction - The Research Agenda 1
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Part One - Histories, Migrations, and Communities 39
  • Chapter 1 - Latino History in the New Millennium 45
  • Notes *
  • Chapter 2 - Caribbean Latinos in Historical Perspective 59
  • Notes *
  • Chapter 3 - Miami Cubans 75
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Commentary 93
  • Notes *
  • Chapter 4 - Community Dynamics and the Rise of Street Gangs 97
  • References *
  • Chapter 5 - Gender, Ethnicity, and Race in School and Work Outcomes of Second-Generation Mexican Americans 110
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Chapter 6 - Mutual Transformation 126
  • Notes *
  • Commentary 146
  • Chapter 7 - Latino Religious Life in the United States 150
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Chapter 8 - Mass Public Responses to the “new” Latino Immigration to the United States 165
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Chapter 9 - The Effects of 1996 U. S. Immigration Reform on Communities and Families in Texas, El Salvador, and Mexico 190
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Commentary 202
  • References *
  • Part Two - Health, Families, Languages, Education, and Politics 207
  • Chapter 10 - The Latino Health Research Agenda for the Twenty-First Century 215
  • References *
  • Chapter 11 - Latinos' Access to Employment-Based Health Insurance 236
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Commentary 254
  • Chapter 12 - From Braceros in the Fields to Braceras in the Home 259
  • References *
  • Chapter 13 - Risk and Resilience in Latino Immigrant Families 274
  • References *
  • Chapter 14 - The Plasticity of Culture and Psychodynamic and Psychosocial Processes in Latino Immigrant Families 289
  • References *
  • Commentary 302
  • References *
  • Chapter 15 - Mapping the Research Agenda 306
  • Note *
  • References *
  • Chapter 16 - Latin@ Languages and Identities 321
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Chapter 17 - Guideposts for the Nation 339
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Commentary 359
  • Chapter 18 - The Schooling of Latino Children 362
  • Notes *
  • References 372
  • Chapter 19 - Affirmative Action, X Percent Plans, and Latino Access to Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century 375
  • References *
  • Commentary 389
  • Notes *
  • Chapter 20 - Latino Participation in American Elections 398
  • Note *
  • References *
  • Chapter 21 - Gender and Citizenship in Latino Political Participation 410
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Commentary 430
  • Note *
  • Epilogue - Racial Diversity and Corporate Identity in the Latino Community 435
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Afterword - American Projections 457
  • Notes *
  • Notes on Contributors 463
  • Index 467
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 490

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.