The Communicative Actions
of the Roman Government
In a.d. 245 a group of men from Beth Phouraia, a village in the vicinity of Appadana, itself a town some miles north of Dura Europus along the Euphrates, came to Antioch to petition the governor to solve a dispute in their village. Fate has preserved a copy of their petition, along with its subscription; it was first published in 1989, was republished in 1995, and is now officially designated P. Euphrates 1:1
 In the consulship of Imperator Caesar Marcus Julius Philippus Augustus and Maesius Tittianus, five days before the Kalends of September, in the year 293 [of Antioch], on 28 Loos, at Antioch, colony and metropolis, in the Baths of Hadrian:
 To Julius Priscus, perfectissimus prefect of Mesopotamia, exercising proconsular power, from Archodes son of Phallaios, Philotas son of Nisraiabos, Vorodes son of Sumisbarachos, and Abezautas son of Abediardas, from the imperial village Beth Phouraia, the one near Appadana:
 Having a dispute with our fellow villagers, Lord, concerning land and other things, we came here to plead our case before Your Goodness and, after we attended your tribunal for eight months, our case was introduced, as Your Greatness remembers, on the ninth day before the Kalends of September—the day just passed. You, Our Benefactor, having heard part of the case, decided that you would render judgment when, blessedly, you would be in the area.