Special Cases, Forced
Confessions, Fabricated Proof
The most unjust case fabricated during the Cultural Revolution was that against Liu Shaoqi. During that period, Liu Shaoqi experienced libel, assault, and loss of personal freedom. Since Liu Shaoqi was deputy chairman of the Chinese Communist Party and president of the People's Republic of China, any judgment passed on him had to be adopted, at least nominally, by the plenary session of the Central Committee. Thus a Special Investigative Committee of the Party Central was set up in May 1967 to prepare an "investigative report" on Liu Shaoqi for the plenary session. This committee resorted to all sorts of illegal measures, extorted confessions by torture, and fabricated many instances of perjury to convict Liu Shaoqi of being "a turncoat, a traitor, and a labor thief." In these proceedings, Jiang Qing, Kang Sheng, and Xie Fuzhi played crucial roles.
Although Liu Shaoqi was related to the Case of the Clique of Sixty-one Traitors, no evidence could prove Liu Shaoqi a renegade. To make Liu Shaoqi a renegade, Jiang Qing, Kang Sheng, and others first of all tried to use An Ziwen, head of the Organization Department of the Party. In April 1967, Kang Sheng sent a person to An Ziwen to say, "If you can write a testimony indicating that Liu Shaoqi is a turncoat, you may immediately go to Diaoyutai and speak with the Party Central's leading cadre. A car is waiting outside." An Ziwen replied, "I have worked in the Organization Department for twenty‐ one years and have never heard anyone say Liu Shaoqi was a turncoat, nor did I see any material saying so." By spring 1968, when An Ziwen was in prison, Kang Sheng sent another person to him to say, "Someone has already made the first contribution in proving Liu Shaoqi a turncoat; if you can make the second contribution so as to confirm this, it will be of great advantage to you. You know very well what kind of a place this is. Now that you've entered this