Fixing African Economies: Policy Research for Development

By Lucie Colvin Phillips; Diery Seck | Go to book overview

3
Nigeria:
Understanding Attitudes Toward
Democracy and Markets
Peter M. Lewis and Michael Bratton

Nigeria's recent political transition opens a new chapter in the nation's quest for democratic governance. Over the past three decades, Nigeria has been ruled chiefly by the military with only a brief civilian hiatus during the Second Republic (1979–1983). Throughout a turbulent political history, Nigerians have repeatedly affirmed their commitment to democracy as the ideal system for governing the country. Nearly every military leader has espoused his intention to restore democracy, and several have arranged elaborate political transition programs. Throughout the cycles of civilian and military governance, a vibrant press has served as a forum for the expression of political values and aspirations. The academic community, professional groupings, and a range of popular associations have also nourished democratic desires. As a principle, democracy has a firm foundation in the national conscience.

Two previous constitutional regimes were unable to endure, however, as they succumbed to the rivalries of elites, the deficiencies of key institutions, and flagging popular legitimacy. The First Republic, the parliamentary system that governed from independence until 1966, fell victim to ethnic and regional contention, and ensuing political violence. The Second Republic, a presidential system inaugurated through a deliberative transition, was ruined by prodigious corruption, partisan stalemate, and rampant electoral misconduct. In each instance, many Nigerians welcomed the eventual intercession of the military, although the public nurtured hopes that a more viable democracy would soon be restored.

The coup d'etat of 1983 gave way to a protracted period of military control, as a succession of governments ruled until 1999. The country entered a lengthy period of political tension and instability when the

-65-

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Fixing African Economies: Policy Research for Development
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgements ix
  • 1 - Fixing African Economies: the Research-Policy Nexus 1
  • Notes *
  • 2 - Ghana: Promoting Accountability and Transparency in Government Behavior 25
  • Notes *
  • 3 - Nigeria: Understanding Attitudes Toward Democracy and Markets 65
  • Notes *
  • 4 - Kenya: Policy Research and Policy Reform 95
  • Notes *
  • 5 - Tanzania: Policy Research and the Mining Boom 117
  • 6 - Madagascar: Using Policy Research in Formulating Tax Policy 129
  • Appendix - Other Recent Tax Policy Research in Madagascar *
  • Notes *
  • 7 - Ghana and Uganda: Considering Monetary and Exchange Rate Policies 155
  • Notes *
  • 8 - South Africa: Policy-Oriented Research on Labor Markets and Poverty 183
  • 9 - Conclusions 209
  • Acronyms 227
  • References 229
  • The Contributors 237
  • Index 243
  • About the Book 249
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