1800 Napoleon takes control of Italy. Publication of F. W. J. von Schelling's System des transcendentalen Idealismus, Herder's Kalligone, and the second edition of Wordsworth's Lyrical Ballads in which he notes 'all good poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings', a phrase which becomes a manifesto of Romanticism. Zelter becomes director of the Berlin Singakademie. Franz Anton Hoffmeister and Ambrosius Kühnel set up the publishing house Bureau de Musique in Leipzig (taken over by Peters in 1814). The Musikakademie is founded in Düsseldorf. Premières of Cherubini's Les deux journées, Nicolas-Marie Dalayrac's Maison à vendre and Boieldieu's Le calife de Bagdad in Paris. Beethoven defeats the pianist Steibelt in an improvisation contest in Vienna. Czerny's public debut in Vienna, playing a Mozart concerto. Beethoven holds a benefit concert at the Bergtheater in Vienna; the programme includes his own Piano Concerto No. 1 and Symphony No. 1.
1801 Peace between France and Austria marks the passing of the Holy Roman Empire. The accession of Alexander I in Russia, following the assassination of Paul I, leads to a growth in creative activity. The reinstatement, following the French Revolution, of Christian worship and the Chapelle in Paris under the direction of Giovanni Paisiello, then Paer. The restoration of the Théâtre-Italien, and merging of the Comédie-Italienne and the Opéra-Comique. The dramatic soprano Caroline Branchu arrives at the Paris Opéra. Haydn's Die Schöpfung is performed in Vienna. Johann Nikolaus Forkel completes his Allgemeine Geschichte der Musik. Publication of Field's Piano Sonatas, Op. 1, dedicated to Clementi. Beethoven completes the music for the ballet Die Geschöpfe des Prometheus.
1802 Peace of Amiens between France and Britain. Napoleon becomes president of the Italian Republic and first consul of France. Publication of Chateaubriand's Génie du christianisme, a defence of Catholic