H omer looks forward to classical Greece and backwards to the Mycenaean world. The Mycenaean world was a world of great palaces of which Mycenae itself, Tiryns near by, Pylos on the West coast, Thebes in Boeotia, and Knossos in Crete are the best known. Their treasures compare in kind with the treasures of the Egyptians and Hittites and of the inhabitants of Ugarit, and are themselves evidence of the international character of this civilization. The Mycenaean palaces were connected with this larger Eastern Aegean and Eastern civilization first, perhaps, chiefly through their contacts with Minoan Crete, but later directly. Minoan Crete itself had cross links with contemporary Eastern culture in art and architecture and possibly also in language.
The attempt to distinguish what the Greeks, wherever they came from, brought with them from what they found in Greece and borrowed from their neighbours seems to me less profitable than the attempt to form some picture of the Greek world when it had become literate at least to the extent of keeping records. We have the fullest records for Pylos in the thirteenth century, and tradition connects Pylos with Athens and through Athens with Ionia and Homer. The records only date from the destruction of the palace, but Mycenaean civilization in the area of Pylos can now be traced as far back as in Mycenae itself, so that the last palace had a great heritage behind it, a heritage of civilization, poetry, and art. For the fourteenth and thirteenth century the question of what the Greeks brought with them and what they found need not be asked; by that time they were well established as a flourishing civilization among flourishing civilizations. The Mycenaean kingdoms were sufficiently closely linked together to undertake a common expedition if necessary, and the King of Ahhiyawa could correspond with the King of the Hittites. Mycenaean establishments in Cyprus, Ugarit, Alalakh and elsewhere were open to literary and artistic ideas from the East, quite