This volume is based primarily on the Operational Records of the Office of Strategic Services (Record Group 226) at the National Archives, Washington, D. C. The author is grateful for expert advice from John Taylor and Lawrence McDonald on the use of OSS records. I also appreciate the assistance I received from staff members at the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, Princeton University, repository of the Allen Dulles Papers; the U.S. Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, which houses the William J. Donovan Papers; and the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, New York. I was fortunate to have the editorial assistance of my wife, Nancy Petersen, and the computer guidance of Joseph Longo. Richard Breitman, Dean Rexford, and James Dacey helped me obtain photographs. Sandy Thatcher, Peggy Hoover, and Andrew Lewis of Penn State Press provided support, encouragement, and first-rate treatment of the manuscript in editorial review and other aspects of the publication process.
Most messages reproduced in this volume are telegrams from Bern to Washington, with information copies often sent to London and Algiers or Caserta. When the telegram is directed to a location other than Washington, the heading so indicates. Information copies of such telegrams were generally transmitted to Washington. Telegrams from Bern to OSS Washington were usually designated "SI" (Secret Intelligence Branch) for action, with information copies to Director William J. Donovan and the OSS secretariat. Distribution is not indicated unless it had particular significance. Transmittal to the White House or State Department is often noted.
When a telegram was slugged for special handling according to topic, for instance BREAKERS, KAPPA, or AZUSA, this designation is reproduced in the first line of the telegram. The times of transmittal and receipt are not indicated in the text or annotation unless they had special significance. Telegrams from Bern were sometimes classified "secret." This security classification is not reproduced. A second category of message sent by Allen Dulles from Bern were radiotelephone transmissions, or "flashes." Less secure than telegrams, they usually bore the classification restricted," which is also not reproduced here.
When a document is not printed in its entirety, omissions are indicated by ellipses. Deletions were made in the interest of saving space, eliminating extraneous or repet-