Europe's New Security Challenges

By Heinz Gärtner; Adrian Hyde-Price et al. | Go to book overview

Notes
1
James N. Rosenau (1990) Turbulence in World Politics: A Theory of Change and Continuity (Princeton: Princeton University Press), pp. 12–13. Rosenau discusses five forces that characterize the world'S transition from international to postinternational. These are: (1) the dynamics of technology; (2) transnational issues; (3) reduced capacity of governments to provide satisfactory solutions to major issues; (4) international and national tendencies toward decentralization and subgrouping; and (5) populations with enhanced analytical skills that can less easily be manipulated by governments. The threat to states from within, not from the anarchical nature of the international system, is an important related theme developed superbly by Heinz Gärtner (1997b) “States Without Nations: State, Nation, and Security in Central Europe, ” International Politics 34, no. 1 (April): 7–32.
2
John Newhouse makes this point in (1997) “Europe'S Rising Regionalism, ” Foreign Affairs 76, no. l (January-February): 67–84.
3
A similar theme is echoed in Jessica T. Matthews (1997) “Power Shift, ” Foreign Affairs 76, no. 1 (January-February): 50–66. Matthews cites an estimate by McKinsey and Company that global financial markets will expand to reach $84 trillion by 2000, “triple the aggregate GDP of the affluent nations of the [OECD]” (p. 57).
4
Vincent Boland (1997) “Earnings from Organized Crime Reach $1,000 bn, ” Financial Times, February 15, p. 1.
5
One examination of the state'S dwindling functionality is John W. Meyer (1980) “The World Polity and the Authority of the Nation-State, ” in Albert Bergesen (ed.) Studies in the Modern World System (New York: Academic), pp. 109–137.
6
I am indebted to David Kanin for these comparative insights. See his provocative essay, David Kanin (1997) “The State, Its Dysfunction, and Ours, ” International Politics 34, no. 4 (December): 335–370.
7
Robert H. Jackson (1990) Quasi-States: Sovereignty, International Relations, and the Third World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
8
Edward A. Kolodziej (1997) “Order, Welfare, and Legitimacy, ” International Politics 34, no. 1 (March).
9
David J. Elkins (1995) Beyond Territoriality: Territory and Political Economy in the Twenty-First Century (Toronto: University of Toronto Press), pp. 121–146.
10
Branko Milanovic (1996) “Nations, Conglomerates, and Empires: The Tradeoff Between Income and Sovereignty, ” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, no. 1675 (October).
11
See, for example, Joseph S. Nye'S listing of “major contenders” according to his estimate of their power resources in 1990 in Joseph S. Nye (1990) Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power (New York: Knopf), p. 173.
12
Ibid., p. 174.
13
Concerning the notion of security as a balance between threats and capacities, see Daniel N. Nelson (1996) “Civil Society Endangered, ” Social Research 63, no. 2 (Summer): 345–368, and the same author'S “Great Powers and World Peace, ” in Michael Klare and Thomas Daniel (eds.) (1994) World Security: Challenges for a New Century, 2nd ed. (New York: St. Martin'S), pp. 27–42. An alternative, and somewhat ironic, view of security is that of author Germaine Greer, for whom “security is when everything is settled—when nothing can happen to you. Security is the denial of life. ” But for most people, risk is not life-enriching; Greer'S notion of security qua death won't wash.
14
J. Roland Pennock (1996) “Political Development, Political Systems, and Political Goods, ” World Politics 18, no. 2 (April).

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