These volumes have been a long time in the making, and the list of those who have helped them is long in proportion. The first place must be given to the Department of History of the Johns Hopkins University, which has sustained me in every way for over twenty years, during and after my career in active teaching. Its faculty, graduate students, undergraduates and administrative staff have been true makers of my books, and it has borne the greater part of the costs of producing the typescript.
I am indebted to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and to the Enciclopedia Italiana for the conference which saw the gestation of this project; to the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars for a six months' fellowship in 1982, during which a great deal of the basic reading was done; to the University of Canterbury for a Canterbury Fellowship, and the Tanner Foundation for Human Values for an invitation to lecture at Yale, on bothof whichoccasions I was able to elaborate a group of three lectures serving to pilot my major themes; to the Andrew Mellon Foundation and Tulane University, for a visiting professorship in 1996, which gave me much time for writing; and to many other universities in Australia, Italy, Japan and the United States, for the opportunity to develop my ideas. David Womersley organised a conference at Jesus College, Oxford, in June 1994, which brought most of those active in Gibbon scholarship in contact with one another. I am further indebted to the President and Fellows of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, for their hospitality in the Michaelmas Term of 1997.
The research for this project has been carried out at many institutions to which I owe thanks, notably the Library of Congress and the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, DC, and the Milton S. Eisenhower, George W. Peabody and John Work Garret Libraries of Johns Hopkins University; also the Charles W. Tilton Library of Tulane University. The help and kindness of the human staffs of these in-