This book has taken a long time to finish. I thank everyone connected with the New Cambridge History of India for their patience, especially Chris Bayly and Marigold Acland. Along the way, my thinking has been improved by Romila Thapar, Muzaffar Alam, Neeladri Bhattacharya, Sugata Bose, Ayesha Jalal, Sanjay Subrahmanyam, Tosun Aricanli, Rosalind O'Hanlon, Burton Stein, Nick Dirks, Sheldon Pollock, James Boyce, Cyan Prakash, Dina Siddiqi, Ahmed Kamal, Michelle Maskiell, David Rudner, Binayak Sen, Zillur Rahman, Arun Bandopadhyay, M. M. Islam, and David Washbrook. Cynthia Talbot, Ahmed Kamal, Robert Nichols, James R. Hagen, David Gilmartin, M. M. Islam, Minoti Chakravarty-Kaul, R. Vasavi, and K. Sivaramakrishnan gave me unpublished manuscripts that were vitally important. I benefited from seminars at the Yale Center for Agrarian Studies, University of Calcutta, the University of Melbourne, the University of New South Wales, Curtin University, the University of Chicago, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Columbia University, the Indian Institute of Technology (Madras), The Power and Participation Research Centre (Dhaka), and the University of Pennsylvania. I have used research funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the American Philosophical Society, the American Institute for Indian Studies, the University of Pennsylvania, and Fulbright-Hays. I thank the professional staff at the National Archives of India, the Library of Congress, the Tamil Nadu Archives, the National Archives of Bangladesh, the National Library of India, the India Office Library and Records, and the Madras Institute for Development Studies. The library staff at the University of Pennsylvania are a constant help, and I especially thank Kanta Bhatia and David Nelson. Thanks to Robert Nichols, Supti Bhattacharya, Amy Iwata, Vivek Bhandari, Sarah Diamond, Jeremie Dufault, and Teresa Watts for their able research assistance.