Natural Conflict Resolution

By Filippo Aureli; Frans B. M. De Waal | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 15
The Natural History of
Valuable Relationships
in Primates
Carel P. van Schaik & Filippo Aureli

Introduction

The most important generalization to emerge from two decades of work on reconciliation (i.e., post-conflict friendly reunion between opponents) in primates is that individuals that reconcile are likely to have a strong social bond (de Waal, Chapter 2; Cords & Aureli, Chapter 9). Depending on the species, strong bonds are characterized by more time in close proximity, more friendly behavior such as grooming, lower rates of agonistic conflict (i.e., conflict including aggressive and submissive patterns), and more mutual agonistic support than the average dyad in the group (review: Cords 1997). Animals with a strong bond are likely to derive considerable value from their relationship (Kummer 1978).

Many examples of reconciliation fit this pattern. In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), in which males but not females form strong intrasexual bonds, reconciliation after agonistic conflicts is far more common between males than between females (de Waal 1986; also muriquis [Brachyteles arachnoides]: Strier et al., Box 15.1). In contrast, among gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), strong bonds are seen only between the group's silverback male and the adult females, and these are the only types of dyads in which post-conflict reconciliation occurs (Watts 1995). Similarly, the dominant adult male in a longtail macaque (Macaca fascicularis) group frequently reconciles with the adult females, but not with other males in the group (Aureli & van Schaik unpublished). Among these same macaques, juvenile females, who unlike juvenile males tend to remain in their natal groups for life, form bonds with unrelated adult females and thus reconcile more with them. Juvenile males, in contrast, reconcile more with other juveniles, with whom they

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Natural Conflict Resolution
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents v
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Introduction 1
  • Chapter 1 - Why Natural Conflict Resolution? 3
  • References *
  • Part I - History 11
  • Introduction 13
  • Chapter 2 - Foundations of Conflict Resolution Research in Animals 15
  • References *
  • Chapter 3 - Conflict Management in Children and Adolescents 34
  • References *
  • Chapter 4 - Searching for Natural Conflict Resolution in Homo Sapiens 54
  • References *
  • Part II - Controlling Aggression 71
  • Introduction 73
  • Chapter 5 - Conflict Management in Various Social Settings 77
  • References *
  • Chapter 6 - Covariation of Conflict Management Patterns Across Macaque Species 106
  • References *
  • Chapter 7 - Coping with Crowded Conditions 129
  • References *
  • Chapter 8 - The Peacefulness of Cooperatively Breeding Primates 155
  • References *
  • Part III - Repairing the Damage 171
  • Introduction 173
  • Chapter 9 - Reconciliation and Relationship Qualities 177
  • References 196
  • Chapter 10 - The Role of Emotion in Conflict and Conflict Resolution 199
  • References 219
  • Chapter 11 - Expanding the Reconciliation Horizon 225
  • References *
  • Chapter 12 - A Multicultural View of Peacemaking Among Young Children 243
  • References *
  • Part IV - Triadic Affairs 259
  • Introduction 261
  • Chapter 13 - Post-Conflict Affiliation of the Aggressor 263
  • References *
  • Chapter 14 - How Targets of Aggression Interact with Bystanders 281
  • References *
  • Part V - Ecological and Cultural Contexts 303
  • Introduction 305
  • Chapter 15 - The Natural History of Valuable Relationships in Primates 307
  • References 327
  • Chapter 16 - Conflict Management in Cross-Cultural Perspective 334
  • References *
  • Chapter 17 - The Evolution and Development of Morality 352
  • References *
  • Conclusion 373
  • Chapter 18 - Shared Principles and Unanswered Questions 375
  • Appendixes 381
  • Appendix A - The Occurrence of Reconciliation in Nonhuman Primates 383
  • References *
  • Appendix B - Key Terms Used in the Volume 387
  • References *
  • Contributors 389
  • Index 391
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