Policing Africa: Internal Security and the Limits of Liberalization

By Alice Hills | Go to book overview

Notes
1
Otwin Marenin, “Policing African States: Towards a Critique, ” Comparative Politics 15: 2 (July 1982), 385.
2
See Robert Jackson, Quasi-states: Sovereignty, International Relations and the Third World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 195. Jackson also wrote that “once institutional arrangements become set they are difficult to change” (201) and that the institution providing independence could also be exploited to deny welfare: “International liberation could therefore be followed by domestic subjugation” (202).

There is a large literature on the nature of security from the perspective of African regimes, all of which are more concerned to preserve their own power than provide policing as a service. See, for example, Joel Migdal, Strong Societies and Weak States: State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988); Mohammed Ayoob, The Third World Security Predicament (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1995).

3
Michael Banton, Policeman in the Community (London: Tavistock Publications, 1964); James Q. Wilson, Varieties of Police Behaviour (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968); David H. Bayley, Forces of Order: Police Behavior in Japan and the United States (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1976).
4
See Cynthia H. Enloe, “Ethnicity and Militarization: Factors Shaping the Roles of Police in Third World Nations, ” Studies in Comparative International Development 11 (Fall 1976), 25–38; Cynthia H. Enloe, Ethnic Soldiers: State Security in Divided Societies (London: Penguin Books, 1980); Cynthia H. Enloe, Police, Military and Ethnicity: Foundations of State Power (London: Transaction Books, 1980); Ernest W. Lefever, Spear and Scepter: Army, Police, and Politics in Tropical Africa (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1970); Simon Baynham, The Military and Politics in Nkrumah's Ghana (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1988).
5
This is true even of South African policing. For a survey of the literature on policing in South Africa, see John D. Brewer, Black and Blue: Policing in South Africa, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994), 2–5. See also “South Africa” in John D. Brewer, Adrian Guelke, Ian Hume, Edward Moxon-Brown and Rick Wilford, The Police, Public Order and the State (London: Macmillan, 1988), 157–188. For South African Police crowd control methods and involvement in Namibian counterinsurgency campaigns, see Gavin Cawthra, Policing South Africa: The SAP and the Transition from Apartheid (London: Zed Books, 1993).

Preliminary work in articles such as Joab M. N. Wasikhongo, “The Role and Character of Police in Africa and Western Countries: A Comparative Approach to Police Isolation, ” International Journal of Criminology and Penology 4 (1976), 382–396; and Godpower O. Okereke, “Police Powers and Law Enforcement Tactics: The Case of Nigeria, ” Police Studies 15: 3 (Fall 1992), 110–117, remains undeveloped.

6
Marenin, “Policing African States, ” 385.
7
Africa Research Bulletin 34: 12 (1997), 12935. The archives of news services such as Reuters contain references only to episodes of extensive brutality or mass casualties caused by the police. Mentions of the opposite are rare. One such case occurred in Burundi (immediately after the UNITA deaths referred to earlier) when the UN special rapporteur on human rights noted that despite poverty and destruction in Burjumbura, a noticeable improvement in the security situation was mainly due to increased policing at the city's main intersections.

-21-

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Policing Africa: Internal Security and the Limits of Liberalization
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents v
  • Tables and Figures vii
  • Preface ix
  • Notes xi
  • 1 - Toward a Critique of Policing and National Development in Sub-Saharan Africa Since 1990 1
  • Notes 21
  • 2 - Policing the Postcolonial State 27
  • Notes *
  • 3 - The Police and Politics 55
  • Notes 84
  • 4 - Models of African Policing: Evolution and Conversion 89
  • Notes 111
  • 5 - Models of African Policing:Construction and Integration 115
  • Notes *
  • 6 - Models of African Policing:Transition 139
  • Notes *
  • 7 - Models of African Policing:Adaptation 161
  • Notes *
  • 8 - Conclusion:Modalities of Policing Africa 185
  • Notes *
  • Acronyms 193
  • Bibliography 195
  • Index 207
  • About the Book 213
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