Handbook of Reading Research

By P. David Pearson | Go to book overview

10
LISTENING
AND READING
Thomas G. Sticht and James H. James

D. P. Brown, a blind educator, completed his doctoral dissertation 30 years ago at Stanford University. In it, he analyzed relationships among oral and written language skills (Brown, 1954). He argued that listening to and comprehending spoken language is different from listening to nonlanguage sounds, which is something the prelanguage infant can do. He argued that, just as reading is not called looking, though it certainly involves looking while processing language symbols, listening while processing language signals should not be called merely listening. Listening, so he argued, is a parallel term to looking, and it causes confusion to have the term also serve as the oral language counterpart to reading. So, he coined the term auding to refer to the process of listening to language and processing it for comprehension.

In this chapter, we will use the term auding as defined by Brown; the term oracy (Wilkinson, 1971) to refer to the oral language skills of auding and speaking; and the term literacy to refer to the processes of reading and writing. Our goal for the chapter is to understand better the relationships among oracy and literacy skills, with a special concern for examining the various lines of evidence regarding the transfer of skills and knowledge used in comprehending oral language (auding) to the comprehension of written language (reading).


Practical Concerns

Understanding the nature of auding and reading and the relationships among these information processing skills has important implications for educational policy and practice. Regarding educational policy, it is notable that the federal government spends millions of dollars each year on preschool intervention programs that aim, in large part, to develop children's oral language (verbal IQ) skills, with the expectation that this development will subsequently facilitate, through some process of transfer, the acquisition of higher levels of reading ability (Ziegler & Valentine, 1979).

The importance of understanding relationships among auding and reading for educational practice is underscored by the fact that the teaching of reading

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Handbook of Reading Research
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents v
  • Contributors ix
  • Foreword xix
  • Preface xxi
  • Part One - Methodological Issues 1
  • 1 - The History of Reading Research 3
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 2 - Current Traditions of Reading Research 39
  • References *
  • 3 - Design and Analysis of Experiments 63
  • References *
  • 4 - Ethnographic Approaches to Reading Research 91
  • References *
  • 5 - Examples from Word Recognition 111
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 6 - Assessment in Reading 147
  • References *
  • Part Two - Basic Processes: the State of the Art 183
  • 7 - Models of the Reading Process 185
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 8 - Word Recognition 225
  • References *
  • 9 - A Schema-Theoretic View of Basic Processes in Reading Comprehension 255
  • References *
  • 10 - Listening and Reading 293
  • References *
  • 11 - The Structure of Text 319
  • References *
  • 12 - Metacognitive Skills and Reading 353
  • References *
  • 13 - Directions in the Sociolinguistic Study of Reading 395
  • References *
  • 14 - Social and Motivational Influences on Reading 423
  • Notes 443
  • References *
  • 15 - Understanding Figurative Language 453
  • References *
  • 16 - Individual Differences and Underlying Cognitive Processes in Reading 471
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Part Three - Instructional Practices: the State of the Art 503
  • 17 - Early Reading from a Developmental Perspective 505
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 18 - From Debate to Reformation 545
  • Notes 575
  • References *
  • 19 - Word Identification 583
  • References *
  • 20 - Research on Teaching Reading Comprehension 609
  • References *
  • 21 - Studying 657
  • References *
  • 22 - Readability 681
  • References *
  • 23 - Classroom Instruction in Reading 745
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 24 - Managing Instruction 799
  • References *
  • 25 - Oral Reading 829
  • References *
  • Author Index 865
  • Subject Index 891
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