Handbook of Reading Research

By P. David Pearson | Go to book overview

14
SOCIAL AND MOTIVATIONAL
INFLUENCES ON READING
Allan Wigfield and Steven R. Asher

There has been a long-standing interest in how motivational and socialization factors influence children's reading skills (Athey, 1976; Bloom, 1976; Burt, 1917; Entwisle, 1979; Ladd, 1933; Matthewson, 1976; Purkey, 1970; Resnick & Robinson, 1975; Wattenberg & Clifford, 1964). However, the research literatures addressing these topics have remained relatively fragmented. On the one hand, researchers interested in the development of achievement motivation processes generally have not explored how such processes operate in particular achievement contexts such as reading. On the other hand, reading researchers and those studying home and school socialization practices often have conceptualized motivation in rather general terms and have not attended to specific processes or components of achievement motivation. Integrating these literatures should provide a more complete account of social and motivational influences on reading.

The purpose of the present chapter is to integrate findings from these disparate research traditions and to provide suggestions for future inquiry. In addition, a particular focus of this chapter is on how race and social class differences in children's reading performance are influenced by social and motivational factors. The problems of race and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in achievement have been at center stage in educational research for nearly three decades. Research has clearly demonstrated that such differences exist; black children experience more difficulty with reading than white children, and the discrepancy increases across the school years (Coleman, Campbell, Hobson, McPartland, Mood, Weinfeld, & York, 1966; Singer, Gerard, & Redfearn, 1975). Similarly, children from lower SES homes perform less well than children from middle-class homes (Armor, 1972; Coleman et al., 1966; St. John, 1970), and here too the difference increases over age (Coleman et al., 1966; Jencks, 1972). Like others (e.g., Entwisle, 1979; Resnick & Robinson, 1975), we believe that a social-motivational perspective can make an important contribution to understanding and overcoming such differences.

In the first section of this chapter, we will examine current trends in achievement motivation theory. Subsequent sections will focus on socialization research in the home and school as it relates to reading. Throughout our discussion, we

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Handbook of Reading Research
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents v
  • Contributors ix
  • Foreword xix
  • Preface xxi
  • Part One - Methodological Issues 1
  • 1 - The History of Reading Research 3
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 2 - Current Traditions of Reading Research 39
  • References *
  • 3 - Design and Analysis of Experiments 63
  • References *
  • 4 - Ethnographic Approaches to Reading Research 91
  • References *
  • 5 - Examples from Word Recognition 111
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 6 - Assessment in Reading 147
  • References *
  • Part Two - Basic Processes: the State of the Art 183
  • 7 - Models of the Reading Process 185
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 8 - Word Recognition 225
  • References *
  • 9 - A Schema-Theoretic View of Basic Processes in Reading Comprehension 255
  • References *
  • 10 - Listening and Reading 293
  • References *
  • 11 - The Structure of Text 319
  • References *
  • 12 - Metacognitive Skills and Reading 353
  • References *
  • 13 - Directions in the Sociolinguistic Study of Reading 395
  • References *
  • 14 - Social and Motivational Influences on Reading 423
  • Notes 443
  • References *
  • 15 - Understanding Figurative Language 453
  • References *
  • 16 - Individual Differences and Underlying Cognitive Processes in Reading 471
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Part Three - Instructional Practices: the State of the Art 503
  • 17 - Early Reading from a Developmental Perspective 505
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 18 - From Debate to Reformation 545
  • Notes 575
  • References *
  • 19 - Word Identification 583
  • References *
  • 20 - Research on Teaching Reading Comprehension 609
  • References *
  • 21 - Studying 657
  • References *
  • 22 - Readability 681
  • References *
  • 23 - Classroom Instruction in Reading 745
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 24 - Managing Instruction 799
  • References *
  • 25 - Oral Reading 829
  • References *
  • Author Index 865
  • Subject Index 891
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